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Akinori Nagano and Karin G.M. Gerritsen

The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to systematically investigate the effect of altering specific neuromuscular parameters on maximum vertical jump height, and (b) to systematically investigate the effect of strengthening specific muscle groups on maximum vertical jump height. A two-dimensional musculoskeletal model which consisted of four rigid segments, three joints, and six Hill-type muscle models, representing the six major muscles and muscle groups in the lower extremity that contribute to jumping performance, was trained systematically. Maximum isometric muscle force, maximum muscle shortening velocity, and maximum muscle activation, which were manipulated to simulate the effects of strength training, all had substantial effects on jumping performance. Part of the increase in jumping performance could be explained solely by the interaction between the three neuromuscular parameters. It appeared that the most effective way to improve jumping performance was to train the knee extensors among all lower extremity muscles. For the model to fully benefit from any training effects of the neuromuscular system, it was necessary to continue to reoptimize the muscle coordination, in particular after the strength training sessions that focused on increasing maximum isometric muscle force.

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Nobuaki Tottori, Tadashi Suga, Yuto Miyake, Ryo Tsuchikane, Mitsuo Otsuka, Akinori Nagano, Satoshi Fujita and Tadao Isaka

volume (MV) is known to be more appropriate for assessing muscle strength than CSA ( 2 , 11 ). Additionally, the MV is associated with muscle force and contractile velocity, which are closely related to superior sprint performance. Thus, to clearly determine the relationship between muscle size and

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Conall F. Murtagh, Christopher Nulty, Jos Vanrenterghem, Andrew O’Boyle, Ryland Morgans, Barry Drust and Robert M. Erskine

concomitant reduction in the force resolved at the tendon due to the oblique line of pull of the fascicles. 9 , 10 Furthermore, fascicle pennation angle correlates inversely with the rate of force development (RFD) 11 and has a negative influence on muscle contractile velocity. 9 , 12 However, the

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Kayleigh R. Erickson, Gregory J. Grosicki, Mara Mercado and Bryan L. Riemann

, greater loading patterns and contractile velocities may be particularly advantageous for fall-prone older adults. To date, BMD adaptations to Olympic weightlifting have only been studied in elite adolescent lifters ( Conroy et al., 1993 ). We hypothesized that OWLs would exhibit superior muscle mass and

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Jocelyn F. Hafer, Mark S. Miller, Jane A. Kent and Katherine A. Boyer

.1152/jappl.1997.83.5.1581 4. Petrella JK , Kim JS , Tuggle SC , Hall SR , Bamman MM . Age differences in knee extension power, contractile velocity, and fatigability. J Appl Physiol . 2005 ; 98 ( 1 ): 211 – 220 . doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00294.2004 15347625 10.1152/japplphysiol.00294.2004 5

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Garrett M. Hester, Zachary K. Pope, Mitchel A. Magrini, Ryan J. Colquhoun, Alejandra Barrera-Curiel, Carlos A. Estrada, Alex A. Olmos and Jason M. DeFreitas

development, peak torque, and performance . The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 21 ( 3 ), 870 – 874 . PubMed ID: 17685688 Petrella , J.K. , Kim , J.-S. , Tuggle , S.C. , Hall , S.R. , & Bamman , M.M. ( 2005 ). Age differences in knee extension power, contractile velocity, and

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Jocelyn F. Hafer and Katherine A. Boyer

in older women . PLoS One . 2017 ; 12 ( 9 ): e0183483 . PubMed ID: 28880935 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0183483 10.1371/journal.pone.0183483 28880935 22. Petrella JK , Kim JS , Tuggle SC , Hall SR , Bamman MM . Age differences in knee extension power, contractile velocity, and