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Robert W. Christina

By 1967, motor control and learning researchers had adopted an information processing (IP) approach. Central to that research was understanding how movement information was processed, coded, stored, and represented in memory. It also was centered on understanding motor control and learning in terms of Fitts’ law, closed-loop and schema theories, motor programs, contextual interference, modeling, mental practice, attentional focus, and how practice and augmented feedback could be organized to optimize learning. Our constraints-based research from the 1980s into the 2000s searched for principles of “self-organization”, and answers to the degrees-of-freedom problem, that is, how the human motor system with so many independent parts could be controlled without the need for an executive decision maker as proposed by the IP approach. By 2007 we were thinking about where the IP and constraints-based views were divergent and complementary, and whether neural-based models could bring together the behavior and biological mechanisms underlying the processes of motor control and learning.

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Cheryl M. Glazebrook

Questions about how humans develop, learn, and control a wide range of motor skills are relevant not only to researchers in motor control and learning but also to teachers, parents, coaches, engineers, and health care practitioners from a variety of fields. An entire community of motor behavior

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James W. Roberts

Investigations of visually guided target-directed movement frequently adopt measures of within-participant spatial variability to infer the contribution of planning and control. The present study aims to verify this current trend by exploring the distribution of displacements at kinematic landmarks with a view to understand the potential sources of variability. Separate sets of participants aiming under full visual feedback conditions revealed a comparatively normal distribution for the displacements at peak velocity and movement end. However, there was demonstrable positive skew in the displacement at peak acceleration and a significant negative skew at peak deceleration. The ranges of the distributions as defined by either ±1SD or ±34.13th percentile (equivalent to an estimated 68.26% of responses) also revealed differences at peak deceleration. These findings indicate that spatial variability in the acceleration domain features highly informative systematic, as well as merely inherent, sources of variability. Implications for the further quantification of trial-by-trial behavior are discussed.

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Ron Croce

In order to effectively habilitate adults with apraxia and children with developmental dyspraxia, teachers and clinicians must have a sound understanding of the neuromotor basis of movement as well as an understanding of the etiology of this motor disorder. This paper describes the neural basis of apractic disorders from both an anatomical and a neuropsychological framework. Motor control and learning theories are used as a foundation for intervention programming. The functional-based approach espoused in this manuscript emphasizes that educators and therapists provide the individual with apraxia with enhanced polymodal sensory input–tactile, vestibular-proprioceptive, verbal, and visual information–within a context-dependent environment. The literature reviewed in this paper should help practitioners and researchers better understand those problems seen in individuals who have apractic disorders and should assist them in developing more effective motor remediation programs.

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André Klostermann, Ralf Kredel and Ernst-Joachim Hossner

To date, despite a large body of evidence in favor of the advantage of an effect-related focus of attention compared with a movement-related focus of attention in motor control and learning, the role of vision in this context remains unclear. Therefore, in a golf-putting study, the relation between attentional focus and gaze behavior (in particular, quiet eye, or QE) was investigated. First, the advantage of an effect-related focus, as well as of a long QE duration, could be replicated. Furthermore, in the online-demanding task of golf putting, high performance was associated with later QE offsets. Most decisively, an interaction between attentional focus and gaze behavior was revealed in such a way that the efficiency of the QE selectively manifested under movement-related focus instructions. As these findings suggest neither additive effects nor a causal chain, an alternative hypothesis is introduced explaining positive QE effects by the inhibition of not-to-be parameterized movement variants.

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Maureen R. Weiss

infants through older adults. This collection of articles will be a valuable resource in undergraduate and graduate kinesiology courses. Similarly, Christina’s (2017) historical reflections on paradigms, theories, and advancements in his article “Motor Control and Learning in the North American Society

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Cornelia Frank, Taeho Kim and Thomas Schack

, representational accounts have received growing interest, as the role of action representation is considered crucial in the control and learning of motor action. According to the principle of functional equivalence ( Finke, 1979 ; Jeannerod, 1994 , 1995 ; Johnson, 1982 ), the execution, the imagery, and the

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Muammer Altun

thresholds at the ankle: implications for the prevention of ligament injury . In Lephart S , Fu F , eds. Proprioception and Neuromuscular Control in Joint Stability . Champaign, IL : Human Kinetics ; 2000 : 279 – 289 . 12. Laszlo JI . Chapter 2 motor control and learning: How far do the

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Sergio Lara-Bercial, A.J. Rankin-Wright, Jason Tee, Fieke Rongen, Tom Mitchell, Mike Ashford, David Piggott and Kevin Till

accumulated positive experiences result, over time, in lasting effects on athletes’ development. The Analysis of Interactivity in a Teaching and Learning Sequence of Rugby: The Transfer of Control and Learning Responsibility Llobet-Martí, B., López-Ros, V., & Vila, I. (2018). Physical Education and Sport

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John Andrew Badagliacco and Andrew Karduna

does not reduce fatigue induced deficits in shoulder joint position sense . Clin Biomech . 2015 ; 30 ( 9 ): 903 – 907 . doi:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2015.07.011 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2015.07.011 29. Schmidt RA , Lee TD . Motor Control and Learning: A Behavioral Emphasis . 4th ed. Champaign, IL