-Levesque, & Legault, 2002 ). Teachers may thus perceive the need to maximize discipline to manage their students, and consider controlling behaviors as an easy means to do so. This approach, however, may be at the expense of adaptive outcomes of their students. As a result, students may be attuned to teachers
Diane Benish, Jody Langdon, and Brian Culp
actively undermining athletes’ needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Coaches who engage in more controlling behaviors are distinguished by their (a) emphasis on tangible rewards, (b) controlling competency feedback, (c) excessive personal control, (d) intimidation behaviors such as verbal abuse
Juliette Stebbings, Ian M. Taylor, and Christopher M. Spray
Within the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) framework, research has considered the consequences of coaches’ autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors on various athlete outcomes (e.g., motivation and performance). The antecedents of such behaviors, however, have received little attention. Coaches (N = 443) from a variety of sports and competitive levels completed a self-report questionnaire to assess their psychological need satisfaction, well-being and perceived interpersonal behaviors toward their athletes. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that coaches’ competence and autonomy need satisfaction positively predicted their levels of psychological well-being, as indexed by positive affect and subjective vitality. In turn, coaches’ psychological well-being positively predicted their perceived autonomy support toward their athletes, and negatively predicted their perceived controlling behaviors. Overall, the results highlight the importance of coaching contexts that facilitate coaches’ psychological need satisfaction and well-being, thereby increasing the likelihood of adaptive coach interpersonal behavior toward athletes.
Johan Y.Y. Ng, Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, and Nikos Ntoumanis
We examined motivation contagion in a hypothetical exercise setting. Exercise science students (n = 164) were provided with quotes of hypothetical male and female obese exercisers displaying different quality of motivation to start an exercise program. We used a 3 (exerciser motivation) × 2 (exerciser gender) × 2 (student gender) between-subjects experimental design to examine students’ (a) motivation to instruct, (b) interpersonal style, (c) perception of barrier efficacy of the exerciser, and (d) effort to identify factors that could maximize the effectiveness of an exercise program for the exerciser. Results showed that students displayed less controlled motivation and rated the exerciser as more capable of overcoming barriers to exercise when they perceived the exerciser to be autonomously motivated. However, students, particularly females, reported more autonomy support and invested more effort toward female exercisers with controlled motivation. Our findings indicate that motivation contagion effects are plausible in exercise settings and may affect interactions between fitness instructors and obese clients.
Renée M. Parker, Michael J. Lambert, and Gary M. Burlingame
The present study was conducted to determine if female distance runners who report engaging in pathological food behaviors display the psychological characteristics of clinically diagnosed female eating-disordered patients. Comparisons were made among 29 eating-disturbed college runners, 31 normal college runners, 19 clinically diagnosed eating-disordered patients, and 34 nonathletic, non-eating-disordered college students. Measures included a 3-day diet journal, questionnaires collecting both personal information and information on eating behaviors and sports participation, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Setting Conditions for Anorexia Nervosa Scale (SCANS), and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Without reaching eating-disordered clinical levels, the eating-disturbed runners appeared on psychological inventories as being more concerned with food and dieting than were the comparison runners and non-eating-disordered nonathletes. Only the eating-disordered group presented with significant levels of psychopathology. Implications for the athletic community are discussed.
Ángel Abós, Rafael Burgueño, Luis García-González, and Javier Sevil-Serrano
experiences ( Lochbaum & Jean-Noel, 2016 ; Vasconcellos et al., 2020 ). However, little attention has been paid to the impact of teachers’ controlling behaviors, more specifically of their internal and external affects ( De Meyer et al., 2016 ) on students’ negative motivational experiences in PE. This
Bart Reynders, Stef Van Puyenbroeck, Eva Ceulemans, Maarten Vansteenkiste, and Gert Vande Broek
( Haerens et al., 2018 ; Matosic & Cox, 2014 ). In light of the prevalence of controlling behaviors among coaches (e.g., Cushion, Ford, & Williams, 2012 ) and congruent with the recent differentiation between a demanding and a domineering approach ( Delrue et al., 2019 ), the present study sought to
Doris Matosic, Nikos Ntoumanis, Ian David Boardley, Andreas Stenling, and Constantine Sedikides
Research on coaching (Bartholomew, Ntoumanis, & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, 2009) has shown that coaches can display controlling behaviors that have detrimental effects on athletes’ basic psychological needs and quality of sport experiences. The current study extends this literature by considering coach narcissism as a potential antecedent of coaches’ controlling behaviors. Further, the study tests a model linking coaches’ (n = 59) own reports of narcissistic tendencies with athletes’ (n = 493) perceptions of coach controlling behaviors, experiences of need frustration, and attitudes toward doping. Multilevel path analysis revealed that coach narcissism was directly and positively associated with athletes’ perceptions of controlling behaviors and was indirectly and positively associated with athletes’ reports of needs frustration. In addition, athletes’ perceptions of coach behaviors were positively associated—directly and indirectly—with attitudes toward doping. The findings advance understanding of controlling coach behaviors, their potential antecedents, and their associations with athletes’ attitudes toward doping.
Laura D. DiPasquale and Trent A. Petrie
Eating disorder prevalence rates among athletes vary greatly because of the different ways in which researchers have measured and classified them, and the extent to which they are higher than those found among nonathletes remains unresolved. The present study examined prevalence of eating disorders, body image issues, and weight control behaviors using a valid diagnostic measure. Participants included 146 male and 156 female NCAA Division I student-athletes and a matched sample of 170 male and 353 female collegiate nonathletes. Overall, eating disorder prevalence rates and use of pathogenic weight control behaviors were lower among nonathletes than athletes. Rates for athletes in the current study were lower than previous studies. These findings are likely due to the lack of anonymity the athletes had when completing questionnaires, as data were collected through athletes’ preseason physicals, whereas nonathletes completed questionnaires anonymously over the Internet. Recommendations for athletic departments’ screening for eating disorders are made.
Nathalie Boisseau, Sonia Vera-Perez, and Jacques Poortmans
Judo is a weight-class sport, meaning that there are weight-defined classes in competitions. Regular body weight restrictions and/or nutritional imbalances can alter growth and maturation states in adolescents. The aim of the present study was to estimate to what extent female judo athletes (age 16.1 ± 0.3 years) modified food and drink intakes 3 weeks and 1 week before competition. Our findings indicate that unbalanced dietary intakes and “weight cutting” might occur in female adolescent competitors. We conclude that dietary recommendations are compulsory in order to educate coaches and young judokas about adequate nutrition and safe weight control behaviors, as well as the dangers of rapid weight loss and dehydration during adolescence.