Overall, PA interventions may be classified according to 2 main approaches: Conventional Exercise Program (CEP) and Culturally Relevant Activities (CRA). 6 , 7 In the CEP approach, there is rigorous control of biological/mechanical variables in structured environments (eg, gymnasiums and fitness centers
Biopsychosocial Effects of a Conventional Exercise Program and Culturally Relevant Activities in Older Women From Mozambique
Timóteo Daca, Antônio Prista, Paulo Farinatti, Matheus Maia Pacheco, Ricardo Drews, Taru Manyanga, Albertino Damasceno, and Go Tani
The Effects of Nordic Walking Compared to Conventional Walking on Aerobic Capacity and Lipid Profile in Women Over 55 Years of Age
Anna Witkowska, Małgorzata Grabara, Dorota Kopeć, and Zbigniew Nowak
the upper part of the body, which remain passive during conventional walking (CW). 6 The NW requires a greater energy expenditure at a given speed compared to CW. 7 Thus, the increased energy expenditure does not correspond with an increase in perceived exertion. 8 Walking with poles, particularly
Effects of Eccentric-Focused Versus Conventional Training on Lower Limb Muscular Strength in Older Adults: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis
Talita Molinari, Tainara Steffens, Cristian Roncada, Rodrigo Rodrigues, and Caroline P. Dias
, 2003 ; Higbie et al., 1996 ; Lastayo et al., 2000 ; Norrbrand, Fluckey, Pozzo, & Tesch, 2008 ; Seger, Arvidsson, Thorstensson, & Seger, 1998 ) when compared with conventional strength training (CT; concentric and eccentric actions). In addition, larger increments in total strength were observed
The Percentage of Mature Height as a Morphometric Index of Somatic Growth: A Formal Scrutiny of Conventional Simple Ratio Scaling Assumptions
Lorenzo Lolli, Amanda Johnson, Mauricio Monaco, Valter Di Salvo, Greg Atkinson, and Warren Gregson
vice versa. Likewise, conventional assumptions for simple ratio formulation were not upheld with the TW-II predicted adult height specified as an alternative denominator of the percentage of mature height index (Figure 4 ). The bivariate relationship between screening height and TW-II predicted adult
Lower-Limb Muscle-Activation Patterns During Off-Axis Elliptical Compared With Conventional Gluteal-Muscle-Strengthening Exercises
Cindy Y. Lin, Liang-Ching Tsai, Joel Press, Yupeng Ren, Sun G. Chung, and Li-Qun Zhang
Gluteal-muscle strength has been identified as an important component of injury prevention and rehabilitation in several common knee injuries. However, many conventionally prescribed gluteal-strengthening exercises are not performed during dynamic weight-bearing activities, which is when most injuries occur.
To compare lower-limb muscle-activation patterns between conventional gluteal-strengthening exercises and off-axis elliptical exercises with motorized foot-plate perturbations designed to activate gluteal muscles during dynamic exercise.
Twelve healthy volunteers (26.1 ± 4.7 y) participated in the study. They performed 3 conventional exercises (single-leg squat, forward lunge, and clamshell) and 3 elliptical exercises (regular, while resisting an adduction force, and while resisting an internal-rotation torque). Gluteus medius (GMed) and maximus (GMax), quadriceps, hamstrings, and gastrocnemius muscle activations during each exercise were recorded using surface electromyography (EMG) and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC).
Normalized GMed EMG was the highest during the adduction-resistance elliptical exercise (22.4% ± 14.8% MVIC), significantly greater than forward lunge (8.2% ± 3.8% MVIC) and regular elliptical (6.4% ± 2.5% MVIC) and similar to clamshell (19.1% ± 8.8% MVIC) and single-leg squat (18.4% ± 7.9% MVIC). Normalized GMax EMG during adduction-resistance (11.1% ± 7.6% MVIC) and internal-rotation-resistance elliptical (7.4% ± 3.8% MVIC) was significantly greater than regular elliptical (4.4% ± 2.4% MVIC) and was similar to conventional exercises. The single-leg squat required more muscle activation from the quadriceps and gastrocnemius than the elliptical exercises.
Off-axis elliptical exercise while resisting an adduction force or internal-rotation torque activates gluteal muscles dynamically while avoiding excessive quadriceps activation during a functional weight-bearing activity compared with conventional gluteal-strengthening exercises.
Mechanics of Translation and Rotation during Conventional and Handspring Soccer Throw-Ins
Stephen P. Messier and Mary Ann Brody
This study examined the mechanics of translation and rotation during the conventional and handspring soccer throw-ins. Thirteen male collegiate soccer players were filmed at 100 fps while performing a conventional soccer throw-in for distance. Additionally, two male collegiate and two male youth league soccer players were filmed at 200 fps while performing a handspring throw-in. Analysis of the conventional throw-in revealed that rapid trunk flexion, and shoulder and elbow extension just prior to release appear to make important contributions to the performance variables (initial ball velocity, angle of release, range, angular momentum). Results of the handspring throw-in analysis suggest that the angular momentum generated during the preparatory and ball support phases was transferred to the arms, forearms, and ball during the latter stages of the movement. Although generalization to a larger population is limited, the results of this study suggest that the handspring throw-in technique has the potential to generate greater release velocities and longer throws, thereby enhancing scoring opportunities during throw-in situations.
Low-Budget Instrumentation of a Conventional Leg Press to Measure Reliable Isometric-Strength Capacity
Heiner Baur, Alessia Severina Groppa, Regula Limacher, and Lorenz Radlinger
Maximum strength and rate of force development (RFD) are 2 important strength characteristics for everyday tasks and athletic performance. Measurements of both parameters must be reliable. Expensive isokinetic devices with isometric modes are often used. The possibility of cost-effective measurements in a practical setting would facilitate quality control. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of measurements of maximum isometric strength (Fmax) and RFD on a conventional leg press. Sixteen subjects (23 ± 2 y, 1.68 ± 0.05 m, 59 ± 5 kg) were tested twice within 1 session. After warm-up, subjects performed 2 times 5 trials eliciting maximum voluntary isometric contractions on an instrumented leg press (1- and 2-legged randomized). Fmax (N) and RFD (N/s) were extracted from force-time curves. Reliability was determined for Fmax and RFD by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the rest-retest variability (TRV), and the bias and limits of agreement. Reliability measures revealed good to excellent ICCs of .80-.93. TRV showed mean differences between measurement sessions of 0.4-6.9%. The systematic error was low compared with the absolute mean values (Fmax 5-6%, RFD 1-4%). The implementation of a force transducer into a conventional leg press provides a viable procedure to assess Fmax and RFD. Both performance parameters can be assessed with good to excellent reliability allowing quality control of interventions.
Conventional Testing Produces Submaximal Values for Oxygen Uptake in Elite Runners
Fernando G. Beltrami and Timothy D. Noakes
the conventional incremental test, even when the verification phase was used. It remains unclear, however, whether the higher V ˙ O 2 max values found in these individual studies are a consistent physiological phenomenon that can be reproduced in different investigations. For instance, Taylor et
Three-Dimensional Knee Kinematics by Conventional Gait Analysis for Eleven Motor Tasks of Daily Living: Typical Patterns and Repeatability
Lennart Scheys, Alberto Leardini, Pius D. Wong, Laurent Van Camp, Barbara Callewaert, Johan Bellemans, and Kaat Desloovere
The availability of detailed knee kinematic data during various activities can facilitate clinical studies of this joint. To describe in detail normal knee joint rotations in all three anatomical planes, 25 healthy subjects (aged 22–49 years) performed eleven motor tasks, including walking, step ascent and descent, each with and without sidestep or crossover turns, chair rise, mild and deep squats, and forward lunge. Kinematic data were obtained with a conventional lower-body gait analysis protocol over three trials per task. To assess the repeatability with standard indices, a representative subset of 10 subjects underwent three repetitions of the entire motion capture session. Extracted parameters with good repeatability included maximum and minimum axial rotation during turning, local extremes of the flexion curves during gait tasks, and stride times. These specific repeatable parameters can be used for task selection or power analysis when planning future clinical studies.
Priming Effects of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on the Effects of Conventional Physiotherapy on Balance and Muscle Performance in Athletes With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury
Zeinab Tohidirad, Fatemeh Ehsani, Rasool Bagheri, and Shapour Jaberzadeh
to the reduction of postural control and problems in the performance of advanced skills in the athletes. 11 – 13 Hence, it seems that, 14 along with conventional PT techniques, the modulation of brain function using tDCS provides important priming effects on the effects of conventional training