leg stiffness. 13 The aim of this study was to investigate the convergent validity, reliability, and sensitivity of RLI as a method to monitor neuromuscular fatigue during a standardized running test. Methods Subjects A total of 20 male rugby union players taking part in the highest university rugby
Cédric Leduc, Jason Tee, Mathieu Lacome, Jonathon Weakley, Jeremy Cheradame, Carlos Ramirez and Ben Jones
Kent C. Kowalski, Peter R.E. Crocker and Nanette P. Kowalski
This study assessed the convergent validity of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A). The PAQ-A is a modified version for high school students of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQC). The PAQ-A is a 7-day recall used to assess general physical activity levels during the school year. Eighty-five high school students in Grades 8 through 12 filled out the PAQ-A and other physical activity measures. The PAQ-A was moderately related to an activity rating (r = .73), the Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (r = .57), a Caltrac motion sensor (r = .33), and the 7-day physical activity recall interview (r = .59). The results of this study support the convergent validity of the PAQ-A as a measure of general physical activity level for high school students.
Michelle Ihmels, Gregory J. Welk, James J. McClain and Jodee Schaben
Advances in BIA offer practical alternative approaches to assessing body composition in young adolescents and have not been studied for comparability.
This study compared reliability and convergent validity of three field tests (2-site skinfold, Omron and Tanita BIA devices) on young adolescents. Reliability was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients, convergent validity was examined by computing correlations among the three estimates, differences in estimated body fat values were evaluated using repeated-measures ANOVA, and classification agreement was computed for achieving FITNESSGRAM ® Healthy Fitness Zone.
ICC values of all three measures exceeded .97. Correlations ranged from .74 to .81 for males and .79 to .91 for females. Classification agreement values ranged from 82.8% to 92.6%.
Results suggest general agreement among the selected methods of body composition assessments in both boys and girls with the exception that percent body fat in boys by Tanita BIA is significantly lower than skinfold estimation.
Scott Duncan, Kate White, Losi Sa’ulilo and Grant Schofield
The aim of this study was to assess the convergent validity of a new piezoelectric pedometer and an omnidirectional accelerometer for assessing children’s time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). A total of 114 children (51 boys, 63 girls) aged 5–11 years wore a sealed NL-1000 piezoelectric pedometer (New Lifestyles Inc, Lee’s Summit, MO) and an Actical accelerometer (Mini Mitter, Bend, OR) over one school day. The NL-1000 pedometers were randomized to one of two manual intensity thresholds used to define MVPA (1): Level 3 = 2.9 metabolic equivalent test (MET) and (2) Level 4 = 3.6 MET. Compared with the Actical, the NL-1000 underestimated the time spent in MVPA by 37% and 45% at intensity levels 3 and 4, respectively. In addition, the 95% limits of agreement were wide at both intensity levels (level 3 = -144%, 70%; level 4 = -135%, 45%), indicating a low level of precision.
Hilde Van Waelvelde, Wim Peersman, Mattieu Lenoir and Bouwien C.M. Smits Engelsman
The aim of this study was to investigate the convergent validity of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) and the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales – 2 (PDMS-2). Thirty-one 4- and 5-year-old children (mean age 4 years 11 months, SD 6 months), all recruited from a clinical setting, took part in the study. Children were tested on the M-ABC and the PDMS-2 in a counterbalanced order on the same occasion. The results showed that the total scores on the two tests correlated well (rs = .76). However, when the ability of the two tests to identify children with difficulties was examined, agreement between them was low (K = .29), with the PDMS-2 being less sensitive to mild motor impairment in this population. Taken together, these findings suggest that clinicians need to be aware that, although measuring a similar construct, these tests are not interchangeable.
Steve Barrett, Adrian Midgley and Ric Lovell
The study aimed to establish the test–retest reliability and convergent validity of PlayerLoad™ (triaxial-accelerometer data) during a standardized bout of treadmill running.
Forty-four team-sport players performed 2 standardized incremental treadmill running tests (7–16 km/h) 7 d apart. Players’ oxygen uptake (VO2; n = 20), heart rate (n = 44), and triaxialaccelerometer data (PlayerLoad; n = 44) measured at both the scapulae and at the center of mass (COM), were recorded. Accelerometer data from the individual component planes of PlayerLoad (anteroposterior [PLAP], mediolateral [PLML], and vertical [PLV]) were also examined.
Moderate to high test–retest reliability was observed for PlayerLoad and its individual planes (ICC .80–.97, CV 4.2–14.8%) at both unit locations. PlayerLoad was significantly higher at COM vs scapulae (223.4 ± 42.6 vs 185.5 ± 26.3 arbitrary units; P = .001). The percentage contributions of individual planes to PlayerLoad were higher for PLML at the COM (scapulae 20.4% ± 3.8%, COM 26.5% ± 4.9%; P = .001) but lower for PLV (scapulae 55.7% ± 5.3%, COM 49.5% ± 6.9%; P = .001). Between-subjects correlations between PlayerLoad and VO2, and between PlayerLoad and heart rate were trivial to moderate (r = –.43 to .33), whereas within-subject correlations were nearly perfect (r = .92–.98).
PlayerLoad had a moderate to high degree of test–retest reliability and demonstrated convergent validity with measures of exercise intensity on an individual basis. However, caution should be applied in making between-athletes contrasts in loading and when using recordings from the scapulae to identify lower-limb movement patterns.
Jennifer L. Copeland, Kent C. Kowalski, Rachel M. Donen and Mark S. Tremblay
To accommodate the need for longitudinal physical activity research, we developed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adults (PAQ-AD). The PAQ-AD is an adult version of the PAQ-C and PAQ-A questionnaires which were developed for older children and adolescents, respectively.
Two studies assessed the convergent validity of the PAQ-AD using a series of self-report tools and direct measurement of physical activity.
In the first sample (N = 247), the PAQ-AD was significantly related to a series of self-report tools (r = 0.53 to 0.64). In the second sample (N = 184), the PAQ-AD was significantly related to the self-report tools (r = 0.56 to 0.63), a physical activity recall interview (r = 0.24), and to direct measurements of physical activity (r = 0.26 to 0.43).
These results provide preliminary validity evidence for the PAQ-AD and suggest the PAQ “family” of questionnaires might be advantageous for longitudinal research assessing physical activity from childhood to adulthood.
Michael William Beets, Charles F. Morgan, Jorge A. Banda, Daniel Bornstein, Won Byun, Jonathan Mitchell, Lance Munselle, Laura Rooney, Aaron Beighle and Heather Erwin
Pedometer step-frequency thresholds (120 steps·min-1, SPM) corresponding to moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) have been proposed for youth. Pedometers now have internal mechanisms to record time spent at or above a user-specified SPM. If pedometers provide comparable MVPA (P-MVPA) estimates to those from accelerometry, this would have broad application for research and the general public. The purpose of this study was to examine the convergent validity of P-MVPA to accelerometer-MVPA for youth.
Youth (N = 149, average 8.6 years, range 5 to 14 years, 60 girls) wore an accelerometer (5-sec epochs) and a pedometer for an average of 5.7 ± 0.8 hours·day-1. The following accelerometer cutpoints were used to compare P-MVPA: Treuth (TR), Mattocks (MT), Evenson (EV), Puyau (PU), and Freedson (FR) child equation. Comparisons between MVPA estimates were performed using Bland-Altman plots and paired t tests.
Overall, P-MVPA was 24.6 min ± 16.7 vs. TR 25.2 min ± 16.2, MT 18.8 min ± 13.3, EV 36.9 min ± 21.0, PU 22.7 min ± 15.1, and FR 50.4 min ± 25.5. Age-specific comparisons indicated for 10 to 14 year-olds MT, PU, and TR were not significantly different from P-MVPA; for the younger children (5−8 year- olds) P-MVPA consistently underestimated MVPA.
Pedometer-determined MVPA provided comparable estimates of MVPA for older children (10−14 year-olds). Additional work is required to establish age appropriate SPM thresholds for younger children.
Andrea Stewart, Barbara Sternfeld, Brittney S. Lange-Maia, Kelly R. Ylitalo, Alicia Colvin, Carrie A. Karvonen-Gutierrez, Sheila A. Dugan, Robin R. Green and Kelley Pettee Gabriel
sedentary pursuits and light intensity activities among older women is still poorly understood ( Gay & Buchner, 2014 ). Studies have also used accelerometers as a comparison measure to (re)evaluate the convergent validity of physical activity questionnaires, including those used in population-based studies
Herbert W. Marsh
The Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) is a multidimensional physical self-concept instrument with 11 scales: Strength, Body Fat, Activity, Endurance/Fitness, Sports Competence, Coordination, Health, Appearance, Flexibility, Global Physical, and Global Esteem. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the construct validity of PSDQ responses in relation to 23 external criteria, including measures of body composition, physical activity, endurance, strength, and flexibility for 192 (113 boys and 79 girls) high school students. Each external validity criterion was predicted a priori to be most highly correlated with one of the PSDQ scales. In support of the convergent validity of the PSDQ responses, every predicted correlation was statistically significant. In support of the discriminant validity of the PSDQ responses, most predicted correlations were larger than other correlations involving the same criterion. These results support the construct validity of PSDQ responses in relation to external criteria and their potential usefulness in a wide variety of sports and exercise settings.