, Wirkus, Thraen-Borowski, & Gorzelitz-Liebhauser, 2017 ; Hough, Glaister, & Pledger, 2017 ). Moreover, these protocols do not reflect structured aerobic exercise which includes warm-up, continuous exercise (i.e., bouts ≥ 10 minutes), and cool-down, as prescribed within clinical and research settings for
Joseph M. Stock, Ryan T. Pohlig, Matthew J. Botieri, David G. Edwards and Gregory M. Dominick
Lawrence W. Judge, David Bellar, Kimberly J. Bodey, Bruce Craig, Michael Prichard and Elizabeth Wanless
The purpose of this study was to determine if NCAA Division I and III men’s basketball programs were in compliance with recommended pre- and post-activity stretching protocols. Questionnaires were sent to 500 NCAA Division I and Division III programs in the United States. Seventy-six coaches (75 males & 1 female) participated in the study. Chi-Square analysis (χ2(3,n=69) = 42.29, p≤0.001) indicated a greater combined percentage of static/pnf/ballistic stretches (10.14%, n=7) and combination of stretches (57.97%, n=40) than expected as compared to dynamic stretches (31.89%, n=22). Participants were asked during what period (pre- or post-activity) stretching should be emphasized. The results were significantly different from expected (χ2(4,n=76) = 129.28, p≤0.001), with a greater percentage of pre-activity stretches (26.31%, n=20) and both pre- and post-activity of stretches (60.52%, n=46) being reported as compared to post-activity stretches (13.15%, n=10). Some results seemed to be in conflict with current recommendations in the literature regarding pre-activity stretching practices.
Diane Austrin Klein, William J. Stone, Wayne T. Phillips, Jaime Gangi and Sarah Hartman
The impact of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on physical function in assisted-living older adults (73-94 years old) was studied. A 5-week pretraining period consisting of weekly visits by trainers to participants preceded a 10-week training period of warm-up, PNF exercises, and cool-down. Training progressed from 1 set of 3 repetitions to 3 sets of 3 repetitions. Assessments were conducted at baseline (T1), postpretraining (T2), and posttraining (T3). Eleven of 14 volunteer participants completed the study. Physical function was assessed by range of motion (ROM), isometric strength, and balance and mobility measures. Repeated-measures ANOVA identified 6 measures (sit-to-stand, shoulder- and ankle-flexion ROM, and hip-extension, ankle-flexion, and ankle-extension strength) with statistically significant differences. With the exception of hip-extension strength, these measures were statistically significant from T2 to T3 in post hoc univariate tests. Results indicate that PNF flexibility training can improve ROM, isometric strength, and selected physical-function tasks in assisted-living older adults.
Francisco J. Ordonez, Gabriel Fornieles-Gonzalez, Alejandra Camacho, Miguel A. Rosety, Ignacio Rosety, Antonio J. Diaz and Manuel Rosety-Rodriguez
Recent studies have reported that obese young people with Down syndrome suffer from low-grade systemic inflammation. Whereas this condition may be improved in the general population by regular exercise, the problem has received no attention in the case of people with intellectual disability. Therefore, the authors’ aim was to assess the influence of aerobic training on plasma adipokines in obese women with Down syndrome. Twenty obese young women with Down syndrome volunteered for this study, 11 of whom were randomly assigned to a 10-wk aerobic-training program. They attended 3 sessions/wk, which consisted of warm-up exercises followed by the main activity on a treadmill (30–40 min) at a work intensity of 55–65% of peak heart rate and ended with a cooling-down period. The control group included 9 women with Down syndrome matched for age, sex, and body-mass index. Fat-mass percentage and distribution were measured, and plasma adipokine levels (leptin and adiponectin) were assessed. In addition, each participant performed a maximal graded continuous treadmill exercise test. These parameters were assessed pre- and postintervention. Aerobic training produced a significant increase in participants’ maximal oxygen uptake (20.2 ± 5.8 vs.23.7 ± 6.3 ml · kg−1 · min−1; p < .001), and plasma leptin levels were significantly reduced in the intervention group (54.2 ± 6.7 vs.45.7 ± 6.1 ng/ml; p = .026). Further significant correlations between plasma leptin and indices of obesity were found. In contrast, no significant changes were found in adiponectin levels (p > .05). None of the tested parameters changed in the control group. In conclusion, a 10-week training program reduced leptin levels in obese young women with Down syndrome.
Mahsa Jafari, Vahid Zolaktaf and Gholamali Ghasemi
warming up, inhibiting, lengthening, activating, integrating, and cooling down training ( Supplementary Material [available online]). This protocol was designed with the aim of correcting the functional movement patterns. To gradually increase the overload, the training protocol was modified to some
Kayla J. Nuss, Joseph L. Sanford, Lucas J. Archambault, Ethan J. Schlemer, Sophie Blake, Jimikaye Beck Courtney, Nicholas A. Hulett and Kaigang Li
when they achieved volitional fatigue and then completed a five-minute cool-down consisting of two minutes of walking at 2.5 mph and 0% incline and one minute of walking at 1.7 mph with 0% incline. After the active cool-down, the participant sat in a chair for two minutes. Researchers continued to take
Lorraine Cale and Jo Harris
work of Harris ( 2000 ). Table 1 Learning Outcomes Associated With National Curriculum Key Stages Pupils who are 5–7 years old can: a. explain that activity starts with a gentle warm up and finishes with a calming cool down (safety issues) b. recognize and describe the effects of exercise, including
Meltem Dizdar, Jale Fatma Irdesel, Oguzhan Sıtkı Dizdar and Mine Topsaç
closed on hard/soft ground], edge walking, walking on a balance board, reciprocal leg movements, slowly sitting down and standing up on chair, going up and down stairs) and cool-down. Balance and coordination exercises were performed in three sets of 10–15 repetitions, with a 1–2-min break between each
Davide Ferioli, Andrea Bosio, Johann C. Bilsborough, Antonio La Torre, Michele Tornaghi and Ermanno Rampinini
for this study (Table 1 ). The PRO players competed in the Italian first or second division, whereas the SEMIPRO players were from Italian third division. During the preparation period, athletes trained 5 to 12 times a week, with 60 to 120 minutes of training sessions, excluding cool down and
Yongwoo Lee, Wonjae Choi, Kyeongjin Lee, Changho Song and Seungwon Lee
to the experimental group (n = 22) or a control group (n = 22). The participants attended a 60-min training session that included 10 min of warm-up and 5 min of cool-down exercise in the experimental group. The virtual reality training was conducted twice a week for 6 weeks ( Duque et al., 2013