Competition and cooperation are strategic concepts that exist in a paradoxical structure. Within a competitive paradigm, two or more individual actors simultaneously strive to obtain similar resources ( Vickers, 1995 ). As such, the actors develop an individualistic and self-interested mentality
Leeann M. Lower-Hoppe, James O. Evans, Richard L. Bailey, and Shea M. Brgoch
Brennan Petersen, Mark Eys, Kody Watson, and M. Blair Evans
cooperation (perceptions that members act in a manner that is mutually beneficial) 5 1 4 peer motivational climate (peer-derived competitive orientation across group) 5 5 0 norms (generalized expectations for behaviors of all members of a group) 5 5 0 interdependence (manner in which group members rely on
The subculture of bicycle racing provides a situation in which the relationship between formal rules and dominant sport ideologies, and the taken-for-granted informal structures produced by athletes during competition, may be observed. Ethnographic and interview data suggest that such structures as pelotons and pacelines create both the opportunity for and the requirement of cooperative efforts between opponents, standing in stark contrast to more conventional conceptions of sport in which only unambiguous conflict between competitors is seen as legitimate. Here the informal norms of cooperation are central to insider definitions of the social order and are accompanied by strong sanctions for noncompliance. This cooperative informal order is seen as especially problematic for novices, as it diverges from widely held beliefs in the independence of competing units and the importance of overcoming opponents through maximum individual effort. Media coverage of the sport, in disregarding cooperative efforts, both creates and perpetuates erroneous stereotypes, making socialization into the sport more difficult.
Clémentine Bry, Thierry Meyer, Dominique Oberlé, and Thibault Gherson
Priming effects of cooperation vs. individualism were investigated on changeover speed within a 4 × 100-m relay race. Ten teams of four adult beginner athletes ran two relays, a pretest race and an experimental race 3 weeks later. Just before the experimental race, athletes were primed with either cooperation or individualism through a scrambled-sentence task. Comparing to the pretest performance, cooperation priming improved baton speed in the exchange zone (+30 cm/s). Individualism priming did not impair changeover performance. The boundary conditions of priming effects applied to collective and interdependent tasks are discussed within the implicit coordination framework.
Masayuki Yoshida, Brian Gordon, Makoto Nakazawa, and Rui Biscaia
In the sport management literature, limited attention has been devoted to the conceptualization and measurement of fan engagement. Two quantitative studies were completed to validate the proposed fan-engagement scale composed of three defining elements (management cooperation, prosocial behavior, and performance tolerance). The results from Study 1 provide evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the threefactor model of fan engagement. In Study 2, we assess nomological validity by examining the antecedents and consequences of fan engagement and found that team identification and basking in reflected glory played a particularly important role in increasing the three dimensions of fan engagement. Furthermore, the results indicate that performance tolerance has a positive effect on purchase intention. These findings highlight the importance of the sequential relationships between team identification, performance tolerance, and purchase intention.
Breanna E. Studenka and Kodey Myers
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit impairment in helping someone else with a motor action, which may arise from impairment in selecting and preparing motor responses. Five children with ASD and five typically developing children performed a cooperative motor planning task that required them to reach for, lift, and hand an object (hammer or stick) to a researcher. The response, movement, and grasp time were measured. Children with ASD grasped the object longer on trials where they helped, indicating that the action was planned in sequence versus as a whole (i.e., prior to the onset of movement). The hammer object elicited a quicker response than the stick, suggesting the facilitation of planning by tools with inherent action properties. Finally, the increased helping of children with ASD was not mirrored by changes in the response, movement, or grasp time.
Dean Barker, Tristan Wallhead, Sheri Brock, Victoria Goodyear, and Chantal Amade-Escot
Student group work is a central feature of many contemporary pedagogical approaches to teaching physical education. Despite this proliferation, our understanding of the teaching-learning dynamics inherent in group work remains limited and has tended to be under-theorized. The purpose of this paper was to examine different theoretical approaches to group work to identify similarities and differences and consequently provide insights and recommendations into ways of using group work as a pedagogical strategy. Four theoretical approaches to group work models were described in detail with brief empirical examples used to illustrate aspects to which each approach draws attention. The examination demonstrates conceptual overlap, elaboration and distinctions between the theoretical approaches related to: (i) content knowledge; (ii) engaging learners; (iii) the teacher’s role; and (iv) group composition. Meta-theoretical discussions of teaching strategies such as group work generate important discourse on the potential for the development of effective pedagogical practice.
Fernando Segura Millan Trejo, Mark Norman, and Chirstophe Jaccoud
some cases, it was observed that participants agreed that each move completed by the opposing team should be applauded, regardless of whether it resulted in a goal. In that respect, athletes were responsible in the creation of specific frames of interaction. These exercises involve cooperation, in the
Udi Carmi and Orr Levental
the Israeli delegation: “You did a great job in Egypt.” 95 Rome 1960 During the first decade of statehood, the public discourse was replete with notions of equality and sentiments regarding the spirit of pioneering and cooperation. Toward the end of the decade, these concepts evolved into mere slogans
Sofie Koch, Jens Troelsen, Samuel Cassar, and Charlotte Skau Pawlowski
accommodating such a policy. An implementation strategy involving all levels within the SEM is needed in order to succeed in the implementation. Governments need to develop and deploy national PA policies in cooperation with municipalities, schools, and school staff, giving participants an opportunity to