has concentrated on goal interdependence, namely, the effects of pure competition (i.e., negative goal interdependence) and pure cooperation (i.e., positive goal interdependence) on performance (for review, see Stanne et al., 1999 ). The study of competition in sport has a long and illustrious
Christopher Ring, Maria Kavussanu, and Andrew Cooke
Benito León, Javier Fernandez-Rio, Sergio Rivera-Pérez, and Damián Iglesias
physical education is not an easy challenge for teachers ( Dyson et al., 2010 ) because, among other things, cooperation does not come naturally between students ( Dyson et al., 2004 ). Moreover, preservice and novice teachers recognized a lack of pedagogical skills to use this type of framework ( Silva et
Leeann M. Lower-Hoppe, James O. Evans, Richard L. Bailey, and Shea M. Brgoch
Competition and cooperation are strategic concepts that exist in a paradoxical structure. Within a competitive paradigm, two or more individual actors simultaneously strive to obtain similar resources ( Vickers, 1995 ). As such, the actors develop an individualistic and self-interested mentality
Brennan Petersen, Mark Eys, Kody Watson, and M. Blair Evans
cooperation (perceptions that members act in a manner that is mutually beneficial) 5 1 4 peer motivational climate (peer-derived competitive orientation across group) 5 5 0 norms (generalized expectations for behaviors of all members of a group) 5 5 0 interdependence (manner in which group members rely on
Katie E. Misener, Kathy Babiak, Gareth Jones, and Iain Lindsey
well as neoliberal government policies providing incentives and adding institutional pressures for interorganizational cooperation ( Ibsen & Levinsen, 2019 ; Misener & Misener, 2017 ). As Babiak et al. ( 2018 ) noted, scholarship examining IORs in sport has amplified with researchers exploring
The subculture of bicycle racing provides a situation in which the relationship between formal rules and dominant sport ideologies, and the taken-for-granted informal structures produced by athletes during competition, may be observed. Ethnographic and interview data suggest that such structures as pelotons and pacelines create both the opportunity for and the requirement of cooperative efforts between opponents, standing in stark contrast to more conventional conceptions of sport in which only unambiguous conflict between competitors is seen as legitimate. Here the informal norms of cooperation are central to insider definitions of the social order and are accompanied by strong sanctions for noncompliance. This cooperative informal order is seen as especially problematic for novices, as it diverges from widely held beliefs in the independence of competing units and the importance of overcoming opponents through maximum individual effort. Media coverage of the sport, in disregarding cooperative efforts, both creates and perpetuates erroneous stereotypes, making socialization into the sport more difficult.
Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa
The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) for the Arab States of the Gulf, which include Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates, have a collective area of more than 2.6 million kilometers, a population of more than 54 million people, and a total gross domestic product in
Clémentine Bry, Thierry Meyer, Dominique Oberlé, and Thibault Gherson
Priming effects of cooperation vs. individualism were investigated on changeover speed within a 4 × 100-m relay race. Ten teams of four adult beginner athletes ran two relays, a pretest race and an experimental race 3 weeks later. Just before the experimental race, athletes were primed with either cooperation or individualism through a scrambled-sentence task. Comparing to the pretest performance, cooperation priming improved baton speed in the exchange zone (+30 cm/s). Individualism priming did not impair changeover performance. The boundary conditions of priming effects applied to collective and interdependent tasks are discussed within the implicit coordination framework.
Océane Cochon Drouet, Vanessa Lentillon-Kaestner, Cédric Roure, and Nicolas Margas
. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 5 ( 4 ), 111 – 118 . Aronson , E. ( 1978 ). The Jigsaw classroom . Sage . Aronson , E. , & Patnoe , S. ( 2011 ). Cooperation in the classroom: The Jigsaw Method ( 3rd ed. ). Pinter & Martin . Berger , R. , & Hänze , M. ( 2009
Masayuki Yoshida, Brian Gordon, Makoto Nakazawa, and Rui Biscaia
In the sport management literature, limited attention has been devoted to the conceptualization and measurement of fan engagement. Two quantitative studies were completed to validate the proposed fan-engagement scale composed of three defining elements (management cooperation, prosocial behavior, and performance tolerance). The results from Study 1 provide evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the threefactor model of fan engagement. In Study 2, we assess nomological validity by examining the antecedents and consequences of fan engagement and found that team identification and basking in reflected glory played a particularly important role in increasing the three dimensions of fan engagement. Furthermore, the results indicate that performance tolerance has a positive effect on purchase intention. These findings highlight the importance of the sequential relationships between team identification, performance tolerance, and purchase intention.