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Christopher Ring, Maria Kavussanu, and Andrew Cooke

has concentrated on goal interdependence, namely, the effects of pure competition (i.e., negative goal interdependence) and pure cooperation (i.e., positive goal interdependence) on performance (for review, see Stanne et al., 1999 ). The study of competition in sport has a long and illustrious

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Benito León, Javier Fernandez-Rio, Sergio Rivera-Pérez, and Damián Iglesias

physical education is not an easy challenge for teachers ( Dyson et al., 2010 ) because, among other things, cooperation does not come naturally between students ( Dyson et al., 2004 ). Moreover, preservice and novice teachers recognized a lack of pedagogical skills to use this type of framework ( Silva et

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Leeann M. Lower-Hoppe, James O. Evans, Richard L. Bailey, and Shea M. Brgoch

Competition and cooperation are strategic concepts that exist in a paradoxical structure. Within a competitive paradigm, two or more individual actors simultaneously strive to obtain similar resources ( Vickers, 1995 ). As such, the actors develop an individualistic and self-interested mentality

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Brennan Petersen, Mark Eys, Kody Watson, and M. Blair Evans

cooperation (perceptions that members act in a manner that is mutually beneficial) 5 1 4  peer motivational climate (peer-derived competitive orientation across group) 5 5 0  norms (generalized expectations for behaviors of all members of a group) 5 5 0  interdependence (manner in which group members rely on

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Katie E. Misener, Kathy Babiak, Gareth Jones, and Iain Lindsey

well as neoliberal government policies providing incentives and adding institutional pressures for interorganizational cooperation ( Ibsen & Levinsen, 2019 ; Misener & Misener, 2017 ). As Babiak et al. ( 2018 ) noted, scholarship examining IORs in sport has amplified with researchers exploring

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Edward Albert

The subculture of bicycle racing provides a situation in which the relationship between formal rules and dominant sport ideologies, and the taken-for-granted informal structures produced by athletes during competition, may be observed. Ethnographic and interview data suggest that such structures as pelotons and pacelines create both the opportunity for and the requirement of cooperative efforts between opponents, standing in stark contrast to more conventional conceptions of sport in which only unambiguous conflict between competitors is seen as legitimate. Here the informal norms of cooperation are central to insider definitions of the social order and are accompanied by strong sanctions for noncompliance. This cooperative informal order is seen as especially problematic for novices, as it diverges from widely held beliefs in the independence of competing units and the importance of overcoming opponents through maximum individual effort. Media coverage of the sport, in disregarding cooperative efforts, both creates and perpetuates erroneous stereotypes, making socialization into the sport more difficult.

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Clémentine Bry, Thierry Meyer, Dominique Oberlé, and Thibault Gherson

Priming effects of cooperation vs. individualism were investigated on changeover speed within a 4 × 100-m relay race. Ten teams of four adult beginner athletes ran two relays, a pretest race and an experimental race 3 weeks later. Just before the experimental race, athletes were primed with either cooperation or individualism through a scrambled-sentence task. Comparing to the pretest performance, cooperation priming improved baton speed in the exchange zone (+30 cm/s). Individualism priming did not impair changeover performance. The boundary conditions of priming effects applied to collective and interdependent tasks are discussed within the implicit coordination framework.

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Océane Cochon Drouet, Vanessa Lentillon-Kaestner, Cédric Roure, and Nicolas Margas

. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 5 ( 4 ), 111 – 118 . Aronson , E. ( 1978 ). The Jigsaw classroom . Sage . Aronson , E. , & Patnoe , S. ( 2011 ). Cooperation in the classroom: The Jigsaw Method ( 3rd ed. ). Pinter & Martin . Berger , R. , & Hänze , M. ( 2009

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Masayuki Yoshida, Brian Gordon, Makoto Nakazawa, and Rui Biscaia

In the sport management literature, limited attention has been devoted to the conceptualization and measurement of fan engagement. Two quantitative studies were completed to validate the proposed fan-engagement scale composed of three defining elements (management cooperation, prosocial behavior, and performance tolerance). The results from Study 1 provide evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the threefactor model of fan engagement. In Study 2, we assess nomological validity by examining the antecedents and consequences of fan engagement and found that team identification and basking in reflected glory played a particularly important role in increasing the three dimensions of fan engagement. Furthermore, the results indicate that performance tolerance has a positive effect on purchase intention. These findings highlight the importance of the sequential relationships between team identification, performance tolerance, and purchase intention.

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Breanna E. Studenka and Kodey Myers

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit impairment in helping someone else with a motor action, which may arise from impairment in selecting and preparing motor responses. Five children with ASD and five typically developing children performed a cooperative motor planning task that required them to reach for, lift, and hand an object (hammer or stick) to a researcher. The response, movement, and grasp time were measured. Children with ASD grasped the object longer on trials where they helped, indicating that the action was planned in sequence versus as a whole (i.e., prior to the onset of movement). The hammer object elicited a quicker response than the stick, suggesting the facilitation of planning by tools with inherent action properties. Finally, the increased helping of children with ASD was not mirrored by changes in the response, movement, or grasp time.