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Eryk P. Przysucha and Brian K.V. Maraj

The nature of intra- and interlimb (bimanual) coordination was examined in ten boys with (M = 10.5 years, SD = 1.0) and without DCD (M = 10.8 years, SD = .9) in a two-handed catching task. Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) caught significantly fewer balls (MDCD = 56%, SD = 17.6 vs. MnoDCD = 93%, SD = 7.5), and both groups solved the “degrees of freedom problem” differently at intralimb level of coordination. Typically developing children coupled and decoupled the respective spatial relations, whereas the majority of children with DCD segmented their actions. At interlimb level, both groups exhibited a comparable degree of spatial symmetry. However, individual profiles also showed that children with varying degrees of movement issues exhibited movement patterns that were qualitatively and functionally diverse. Overall, in the context of previous research on interlimb coordination it appears that spatial, in addition to temporal organization, may be jeopardized in at least some children with DCD.

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Marzie Balali, Shahab Parvinpour, and Mohsen Shafizadeh

the linkages among the independent components by imposing constraints on the independent DoFs so that they change together ( Riley & Turvey, 2002 ). For example, in walking and running, a synergy unit, a coordinative structure, emerges between two joints (e.g., hip/knee) or segments (e

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Karl M. Newell and Gareth Irwin

boundaries to the movement dynamics ( Newell, 1986 ). The background to this approach was the coordinative structure theory that introduced the constructs of self-organization and constraints to movement coordination and control ( Kugler et al., 1980 , 1982 ), and has developed to coordination dynamics (e

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Francis M. Grover, Valéria Andrade, Nicole S. Carver, Scott Bonnette, Michael A. Riley, and Paula L. Silva

– 1509 . https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-017-4904-9 10.1007/s00221-017-4904-9 Kelso , J.A.S. , Tuller , B. , Vatikiotis-Bateson , E. , & Fowler , C.A. ( 1984 ). Functionally specific articulatory cooperation following jaw perturbations during speech: Evidence for coordinative structures

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Michael A. Samaan, Valentina Pedoia, Matthew S. Tanaka, Richard B. Souza, C. Benjamin Ma, and Xiaojuan Li

associated with early stage PFJ cartilage degeneration in the ACLR population. Vector coding is a method that uses joint or segment position data to quantify the coordinative structures needed by the sensorimotor system to complete a task. 22 , 23 Vector coding is a more sensitive measure of subtle changes

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Anderson Nascimento Guimarães, Herbert Ugrinowitsch, Juliana Bayeux Dascal, Alessandra Beggiato Porto, and Victor Hugo Alves Okazaki

Greater JROM and the emergence of a new coordinative structure made possible increases in velocities generated by hip and knee, reflecting greater foot velocity. Jaric and Latash ( 1999 ) Pointing at a target 5 men and 1 woman (21–30 years) 310 PRAV Less involvement of fist joint in final sessions of

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Michael Buchecker, Stefan Wegenkittl, Thomas Stöggl, and Erich Müller

coordinative structures ( Bernstein, 1967 ; Newell, 1998 ). This kind of “simplification” approach automatically renders the overall system less complex and, in turn, easier to handle when being exposed to more challenging situations ( Davids, Shuttleworth, Button, Renshaw, & Glazier, 2004 ; Riley & Clark

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Cheryl M. Glazebrook

practice of rhythmical movements throughout early development, it may be that rhythmical movements are practiced to an extent that the internal model is so stable and predictable that the movements become a coordinative structure ( Kelso, 2012 ; Newell, 2003 ; Schöner, Zanone, & Kelso, 1992 ). Dynamical

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Cameron T. Gibbons, Polemnia G. Amazeen, and Aaron D. Likens

concept of a synergy , which also came to be known as a coordinative structure in the motor coordination literature ( Turvey, Fitch, & Tuller, 1982 ). Degrees of freedom vary according to experience level, anatomical composition, muscle flexibility, and mental state (e.g.,  McDonald, van Emmerik

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David Simbaña Escobar, Philippe Hellard, David B. Pyne, and Ludovic Seifert

.0000230209.53333.31 10.1249/01.mss.0000230209.53333.31 10. Seifert L , Boulesteix L , Carter M , Chollet D . The spatial-temporal and coordinative structures in elite male 100-m front crawl swimmers . Int J Sports Med . 2005 ; 26 ( 4 ): 286 – 293 . PubMed doi:10.1055/s-2004-821010 10.1055/s