Although the heterogeneity of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) has been well documented, the search for subtypes within the DCD population with distinguishable profiles has been limited. The present study investigated whether a group of 80 children identified as having DCD could be classified into subtypes based on their performances on six perceptuo-motor tasks. Five clusters were identified and are discussed in terms of current understanding of DCD. This exploratory study supports the notion of heterogeneity within DCD samples, with five patterns of dysfunction emerging.
Chantelle Zimmer, Janice Causgrove Dunn, and Nicholas L. Holt
Approximately 5–6% of school-age children are diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder (DCD; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013 ). They experience substantial and persistent difficulties in learning and performing coordinated motor skills starting in early childhood, which
Carlo Di Brina, Roberto Averna, Paola Rampoldi, Serena Rossetti, and Roberta Penge
as visual constructive and psychomotor coordination impairments, as a co-occurrence of a developmental coordination disorder (DCD; Jongmans, Smits-Engelsmann, & Schoemaker, 2003 ; Kaplan, Wilson, Dewey, & Crawford, 1998 ). The association of LD with a motor coordination impairment is quite common
Sheila E. Henderson and Leslie Henderson
We consider three issues concerning unexpected difficulty in the acquisition of motor skills: terminology, diagnosis, and intervention. Our preference for the label Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) receives justification. Problems in diagnosis are discussed, especially in relation to the aetiology-dominated medical model. The high degree of overlap between DCD and other childhood disorders appears to militate against its acceptance as a distinct syndrome. In this context, we emphasize the need to determine whether incoordination takes different forms when it occurs alone is combined with general developmental delay or with other specific disorders in children of normal intelligence. Studies of intervention have mostly shown positive effects but do not, as yet, allow adjudication between different sorts of content. We suggest that the study of DCD and its remediation would benefit greatly from the employment of the simple but rich paradigms developed for the experimental analysis of fully formed adult movement skills.
Chantelle Zimmer and Janice Causgrove Dunn
Approximately one to two children in every elementary classroom meet the primary diagnostic criteria for developmental coordination disorder (DCD; Missiuna, Rivard, & Pollock, 2004 ). They experience substantial difficulties in learning and performing coordinated motor skills appropriate for their
Mark A. Mon-Williams, Eve Pascal, and John P. Wann
Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) occurs in a small number of children who present with impaired body/eye coordination. No study of ophthalmic function in DCD exists despite vision’s primary role in perception. Ocular performance was therefore assessed with a battery of tests. Five hundred children aged between 5 and 7 years were involved in the study. Diagnosis of DCD was confirmed for 29 children by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (ABC); 29 control children were randomly selected. Comprehensive examination with a battery of ophthalmic tests did not reveal any significant difference in visual status between the two groups. Strabismus was found in 5 children from both groups. All 5 children with strabismus from the DCD group showed a similar movement profile with the Motor Competence Checklist. While a causal relationship cannot be discounted, the presence of strabismus appears more likely to be a “hard” neurological sign of central damage common to this group. The evidence seems to indicate that a simple ophthalmic difficulty does not explain problems with movement control.
Tuyen Le, Jeffrey D. Graham, Sara King-Dowling, and John Cairney
are referred to as having Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD; American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ). Children with DCD struggle with activities of daily living, scholastic achievement, and active play due to impairments in fine and/or gross motor control ( Engel-Yeger, 2015 ). Although DCD
Georgia D. Tsiotra, Alan M. Nevill, Andrew M. Lane, and Yiannis Koutedakis
We investigated whether children with suspected Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD+) demonstrate different physical fitness levels compared with their normal peers (DCD−). Randomly recruited Greek children (n = 177) were assessed for body mass index (BMI), flexibility (SR), vertical jump (VJ), hand strength (HS), 40m dash, aerobic power, and motor proficiency. ANCOVA revealed a motor proficiency (i.e., DCD group) effect for BMI (p < .01), VJ (p < .01), and 40m speed (p < .01), with DCD+ children demonstrating lower values than DCD−. Differences between DCD+ and DCD− were also obtained in log-transformed HS (p < .01). These findings suggest that intervention strategies for managing DCD should also aim at physical fitness increases.
Dawne Larkin and Helen E. Parker
This study investigated landing patterns of children aged 7–9 years with either developmental coordination disorder (DCD) or without coordination problems (NC). Initially, 16 DCD and 15 NC children were videotaped performing two-foot landings from a height of 21.5 cm onto a force platform sampling at 500 Hz. Each landing was videotaped at 60 Hz. Regression modeling of the data identified that 72% of peak maximum loading force was explained by landing time, knee angle at touchdown, and hip joint range of motion. Dis-criminant function analysis using landing force, landing time and lower limb joint kinematic variables reliably separated the groups. In the second part, 12 DCD and 10 NC children participated in 6 weekly landing lessons. The only significant adjustment produced by the program was a decrease in the range of motion at the hip in response to instructions to look straight ahead and sit into the landing.
Frederik J.A. Deconinck, Dirk De Clercq, Rudy Van Coster, Ann Oostra, Griet Dewitte, Geert J.P. Savelsbergh, Dirk Cambier, and Matthieu Lenoir
This study examined and compared the control of posture during bilateral stance in ten boys with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) of 6-8 years old and ten matched typically developing boys in four sensory conditions (with or without vision, on a firm or complaint surface). In all conditions mean postural sway velocity was larger for the boys with DCD, in spite of a normal score on the balance items of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. A Group X Condition interaction revealed a larger dependency on vision in the boys with DCD when standing on a firm surface. These results suggest that in this specific subgroup of boys with DCD with predominantly problems in fine motor and ball skills postural control problems may still be prevalent and may possibly be associated with difficulties to re-weight sensory information in response to environmental demands.