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Jeong-Keun Park

This study examined the coping strategies used by Korean national athletes. One hundred-eighty Korean athletes from 41 different sports were interviewed about the coping strategies they used as national athletes, both presently and in the past. Qualitative methodology was utilized in this investigation and the interview transcripts were analyzed inductively. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. Themes were identified from the analysis of the interview data. Combining these themes, seven general dimensions of coping strategies were identified: psychological training, training and strategies, somatic relaxation, hobby activities, social support, prayer, and substance use. The most cited coping strategies by national athletes in Korea are similar to the coping strategies of the previous elite figure skaters in the study by Gould, Finch, & Jackson (1993).

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Pedro Teques, Luís Calmeiro, Henrique Martins, Daniel Duarte and Nicholas L. Holt

the relationships between EI and coping strategies. For example, Laborde, You, Dosseville, and Salinas ( 2012 ) reported that athletes with higher EI scores engaged in more adaptive coping, such as task-oriented coping strategies (e.g., appraising competition as a challenge), whereas lower EI scores

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Tracey J. Devonport, Andrew M. Lane and Kay Biscomb

Coping is highly relevant to performance in any domain where individuals strive to attain personally important goals. Thirty-three female national standard adolescent netball players participated in focus group and one-on-one interviews. Participants reported stressors experienced in not only sport, but also in other areas of life. They also reported coping strategies used and factors that might influence the stressor-coping process. Results identified stressors that derived from attempts to achieve highly important personal goals in different areas of daily life, including academic, sport, and social settings. Usage of future-oriented coping strategies such as planning, prioritizing, time-management, goal setting, and problem solving were associated with successfully managing multiple stressors and a sense of well-being. The present study illustrated the potential contribution of encouraging athletes to use future-oriented coping strategies when seeking the attainment of goals across domains. Future research should look to test the effectiveness of interventions designed to promote usage of future-oriented coping strategies.

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Faye F. Didymus and David Fletcher

This study investigated sport performers’ coping strategies in response to organizational stressors, examined the utility of Skinner, Edge, Altman, and Sherwood’s (2003) categorization of coping within a sport context, determined the short-term perceived effectiveness of the coping strategies used, and explored appraisal-coping associations. Thirteen national standard swimmers completed semistructured, interval-contingent diaries every day for 28 days. Results revealed 78 coping strategies, which supported 10 of Skinner et al.’s (2003) families of coping. Twenty-four different combinations of coping families were identified. The perceived most effective coping family used in isolation was self-reliance and in combination was escape and negotiation. Stressful appraisals were associated with varied coping strategies. The results highlight the complexity of coping and point to the importance of appraisal-coping associations. Skinner et al.’s (2003) categorization of coping provides a promising conceptual framework for the development of coping research in sport.

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Kyungyeol (Anthony) Kim, Kevin K. Byon and Paul M. Pedersen

intention ( Kim & Byon, in press ). Despite scholarly interest in exploring the phenomenon of SDB, it remains unclear as to how sport spectators cope with SDB and how coping processes yield different behavioral outcomes. In the current study, we examine a mediating mechanism of coping strategies in response

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Nikos Ntoumanis and Stuart J.H. Biddle

The purpose of the present study was to examine how coping strategies in sport relate to differences in levels of anxiety intensity and to the interpretation of these levels as being facilitative or debilitative to performance. British university athletes were asked to recall a recent stressful situation in their sport, the coping strategies they used, and the intensity and direction of their anxiety symptoms. Results showed that perceptions of facilitative cognitive anxiety were related to the use of problem-focused coping. High levels of cognitive anxiety intensity were related to emotion-focused coping and avoidance coping. With regard to somatic anxiety, there was a significant interaction between the intensity and direction dimensions in that similar high levels of anxiety intensity were related to different coping strategies, depending on whether somatic anxiety was perceived to be facilitative or debilitative. From a practical point of view, the results show that athletes with positive perceptions of their anxiety level are able to use effective coping strategies. Lastly, suggestions are offered for further exploration of the nature of the interrelationship between coping strategies and anxiety.

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Mi-Sook Kim and Joan L. Duda

This study examined the effectiveness of the reported coping responses utilized by 318 U.S. and 404 Korean athletes based on the Outcome model (i.e., considers perceived immediate and long-term outcomes) and the Goodness-of-Fit model (i.e., considers the fit between situational appraisal and coping strategies employed). Intercollegiate athletes provided information regarding frequency of psychological difficulties experienced during competition, their perceived controllability over such difficulties, and the reported coping strategies utilized to counter this particular stressor. Recursive path analyses revealed that both Active/Problem-Focused and Avoidance/Withdrawal coping were deemed immediately effective during competition. Active/Problem-Focused and Avoidance/Withdrawal coping strategies were, respectively, positively and negatively associated with all three long-term variables. Results partially supported the Goodness-of-Fit model among both Korean and U.S. athletes.

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Anne Marte Pensgaard, Glyn C. Roberts and Holger Ursin

This study aimed to compare individual and situational motivational factors and the use of coping strategies among elite athletes with and without physical disabilities. Participants were Norwegian athletes from the 1994 Winter Olympics (n = 69) and Paralympics (n = 30) at Lillehammer. Quantitative data came from questions concerning expectations and satisfactions, and three instruments (Perception of Success Questionnaire, Perceived Motivational Climate Questionnaire, and the COPE Inventory). Qualitative data came from interviews. MANOVA analyses revealed that Paralympic and Olympic athletes had similar motivational profiles, but the Paralympic athletes perceived a more mastery-oriented climate, F(1, 98) = 12.6, p < .001. Both groups used similar types of coping strategies, except that Olympic athletes employed more redefinition and growth strategies, F(1, 97) = 6.72, p < .01. Paralympic athletes were also significantly more satisfied with effort and results. Paralympic and Olympic athletes were significantly different on only 4 of 11 variables.

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Anne H. Laybourne, Simon Biggs and Finbarr C. Martin

One third of adults over 65 yr old fall each year. Wide-ranging consequences include fracture, reduced activity, and death. Research synthesis suggests that falls-prevention programs can be effective in reducing falls by about 20%. Strength and balance training is the most efficacious component, and the assumed method of effect is an improvement in these performance domains. There is some evidence for this, but the authors have previously proposed an alternative method, activity restriction, leading to a reduction in subsequent falls through a reduction in exposure. The aim of this study was to examine physical activity in older fallers, applying a theory of adaptation, to ascertain predictors of habitual physical activity. Referrals to hospital- and community-based exercise programs were assessed for (a) habitual walking steps and (b) coping strategies, falls self-efficacy, social support, and balance mobility. There was no average group change in physical activity. There was high interindividual variability. Two coping strategies, loss-based selection and optimization, best explained the change in physical activity between baseline and follow-up. Notwithstanding some limitations, this work suggests further use of adaptation theory in falls research. A potential application is the creation of a profiling tool to enable clinicians to better match treatment to patient.

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John Cairney, Matthew YW Kwan, Scott Veldhuizen and Guy EJ Faulkner

Purpose:

To examine the prevalence of exercise as a coping behavior for stress, compare this to other coping behaviors, and examine its demographic, behavioral, and health correlates in a nationally representative sample of Canadians.

Method:

We used data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 1.2, a cross-sectional survey of 36,984 Canadians aged 15 and over, and conducted univariate and logistic regression analyses to address our objectives.

Results:

40% of Canadians reported using exercise for coping with stress (ranked 8th overall). These individuals were more likely to endorse other ‘positive’ coping strategies and less likely to use alcohol or drugs for coping. Being younger, female, unmarried, of high SES, and a nonsmoker were associated with higher likelihoods of using exercise as a coping strategy. High levels of leisure-time physical activity were associated with increased, and heavy physical activity at work with decreased, odds of reporting using exercise for stress coping.

Conclusions:

While reported use of exercise for stress coping is common in the general population, it is less so than several other behaviors. Encouraging exercise, particularly in groups identified as being less likely to use exercise for stress coping, could potentially reduce overall stress levels and improve general health and well-being.