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Tomoki Oshikawa, Gen Adachi, Hiroshi Akuzawa, Yu Okubo, and Koji Kaneoka

Context: The quadratus lumborum (QL) is expected to contribute to segmental motor control of the lumbar spine to prevent low back pain. It has different layers (anterior [QL-a] and posterior [QL-p] layers), whose functional differences are becoming apparent. However, the difference between the QL-a and QL-p activities during bridge exercises utilized in rehabilitation is unclear. Objective: To compare QL-a and QL-p activities during bridge exercises. Design: Repeated-measurement design was used to assess electromyographic activity of trunk muscles recorded during 14 types of bridge exercises. Setting: University laboratory. Participants: A total of 13 healthy men with no history of lumbar spine disorders participated. Intervention: The participants performed 14 types of bridge exercises (3, 3, and 8 types of side bridge, back bridge, and front bridge [FB], respectively). Main Outcome Measures: Fine-wire electromyography was used for QL-a and QL-p activity measurements during bridge exercises. Results: Both QL-a and QL-p showed the highest activity during the side bridge with hip abduction  (47.3% [29.5%] and 43.0% [32.9%] maximal voluntary isometric contraction, respectively). The activity of the QL-a was significantly higher than that of the QL-p during back bridge with ipsilateral leg lift and FB elbow–toe with ipsilateral arm and contralateral leg lift (P < .05). With regard to the QL-p, the activity of the FB hand–knee with contralateral arm and ipsilateral leg lift, the FB elbow–knee with contralateral arm and ipsilateral leg lift, and the FB elbow–toe with contralateral arm and ipsilateral leg lift were significantly higher than that of the FB elbow–knee and FB elbow–toe (P < .05). Conclusion: This study indicates different regional activities; the QL-a activated during the back bridge with ipsilateral leg lift and FB with ipsilateral arm lift, and the QL-p activated during the FB with ipsilateral leg lift. These results have implications for the rehabilitation of low back pain or lumbar scoliosis patients based on QL recruitment.

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TaeYeong Kim, JaeHyuk Lee, SeJun Oh, Seungmin Kim, and BumChul Yoon

Context: A simulated horseback riding (SHR) exercise is effective for improvement of pain and functional disability, but its comparative effectiveness with the other is unknown. Objective: The authors aimed to demonstrate the effect of a SHR exercise in people with chronic low back pain. Design: A randomized controlled trial. Settings: Community and university campus. Participants: A total of 48 participants with chronic low back pain were divided into 2 groups, and SHR exercises (n = 24) or stabilization (STB) exercises (n = 24) were performed. Interventions: The exercises were performed for 30 minutes, 2 days per week for 8 weeks. Main Outcome Measures: Numeric rating scale, functional disabilities (Oswestry disability index and Roland–Morris disability), and fear-avoidance beliefs questionnaire (FABQ) scores were measured at baseline and at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 6 months. Results: A 2-way repeated analysis of variance identified that between-group comparisons showed significant differences in the FABQ related to work scale (F = 21.422; P = .01). There were no significant differences in the numeric rating scale (F = 1.696; P = .21), Oswestry disability index (F = 1.848; P = .20), Roland–Morris disability (F = 0.069; P = .80), and FABQ related to physical scale (F = 1.579; P = .24). In within-group comparisons, both groups presented significant differences in numeric rating scale (both SHR and STB after 4 wk), Oswestry disability index (both SHR and STB after 6 mo), and Roland–Morris disability (SHR after 6 mo and STB after 8 wk) compared with baseline values. In FABQ-related physical (SHR after 4 wk) and work scales (SHR after 6 mo), there were only significant differences in the SHR compared with baseline values. Conclusions: SHR exercise for 8 weeks had a greater effect than STB exercise for reducing work-related FABQ. The SHR exercise performed in a seated position could substantially decrease pain-related fear disability in young adults with chronic low back pain.

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Brian Catania, Travis Ross, Bradley Sandella, Bradley Bley, and Andrea DiTrani Lobacz

, but not the CON group. The clinical efficacy of “coreexercise programs is promising, 22 , 84 and the sling screen may allow clinicians to appropriately identify patients that could benefit from such interventions. For instance, a 6-week intervention utilized as a warm-up in a previous study was

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Emma F. Zuk, Gyujin Kim, Jacqueline Rodriguez, Brandon Hallaway, Amanda Kuczo, Shayna Deluca, Kirsten Allen, Neal R. Glaviano, and Lindsay J. DiStefano

-focused group improved their core endurance. There were significant improvements in pain for those who completed the rehabilitation protocol that incorporated core exercises than those who only completed a traditional rehabilitation protocol. In addition, those in the core exercise program also had improvements

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Cristiane B.B. Antonelli, Charlini S. Hartz, Sileno da Silva Santos, and Marlene A. Moreno

core muscle fatigue during high-intensity running exercise and its limitation to performance: the role of respiratory work . J Sports Sci Med . 2014 ; 13 : 244 – 251 . PubMed ID: 24790475 24790475 26. Brilla LR , Kauffman TH . Effect of inspiratory muscle training and core exercise training on

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Andrea Biscarini, Samuele Contemori, and Giuditta Grolla

anthropometric value of the mean distance between the hip joints in men of 185-cm height. The WWB has also been designed to allow easy replacement of crescent-shaped blocks with different radius of curvature r , enabling a progression of core exercise with increasing degree of instability. Selected Exercises