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Yi-Ju Tsai, Chieh-Chie Chia, Pei-Yun Lee, Li-Chuan Lin and Yi-Liang Kuo

controls, 13 and some reported that hip abduction strength is negatively associated with dynamic hip adduction angle in runners with patellofemoral pain. 14 A number of studies have investigated the role of core training in preventing knee injuries. A recent systematic review of 14 clinical trials of

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Larry W. Judge

The core is at the center of most sports movements. What the core musculature is, how it is evaluated, how it is trained, and how it is applied to functional performance can sometimes be confusing to coaches. The benefits of a sound, research-based core training program is essential to all sport; therefore it must be included in coach’s education. The core musculature is separated into two systems: local (stabilization) and global (movement). Exercises can be separated into three categories: core-stability, core-strength, and functional exercises. A multifaceted approach that addresses the three planes of movement combining medicine-ball work, body-weight circuits, controlled movements, abdominal exercises, dumbbell complexes, and Olympic lifts can provide physiological and biomechanical advantages that enhance preparation for most every sport.

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Matthew Weston, Angela E. Hibbs, Kevin G. Thompson and Iain R. Spears

Purpose:

To quantify the effects of a 12-wk isolated core-training program on 50-m front-crawl swim time and measures of core musculature functionally relevant to swimming.

Methods:

Twenty national-level junior swimmers (10 male and 10 female, 16 ± 1 y, 171 ± 5 cm, 63 ± 4 kg) participated in the study. Group allocation (intervention [n = 10], control [n = 10]) was based on 2 preexisting swim-training groups who were part of the same swimming club but trained in different groups. The intervention group completed the core training, incorporating exercises targeting the lumbopelvic complex and upper region extending to the scapula, 3 times/wk for 12 wk. While the training was performed in addition to the normal pool-based swimming program, the control group maintained their usual pool-based swimming program. The authors made probabilistic magnitude-based inferences about the effect of the core training on 50-m swim time and functionally relevant measures of core function.

Results:

Compared with the control group, the core-training intervention group had a possibly large beneficial effect on 50-m swim time (–2.0%; 90% confidence interval –3.8 to –0.2%). Moreover, it showed small to moderate improvements on a timed prone-bridge test (9.0%; 2.1–16.4%) and asymmetric straight-arm pull-down test (23.1%; 13.7–33.4%), and there were moderate to large increases in peak EMG activity of core musculature during isolated tests of maximal voluntary contraction.

Conclusion:

This is the first study to demonstrate a clear beneficial effect of isolated core training on 50-m front-crawl swim performance.

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Lindsay L. Musalem, Tatjana Stankovic, Drazen Glisic, Gillian E. Cook and Tyson A.C. Beach

The objective of this study was to investigate why holding times on 2 different tests of isometric trunk flexor endurance capacity (prone plank and v-sit) are weakly correlated. Body position and ground reaction force data from 10 men and 10 women were used to conduct static biomechanical analyses of both test postures, and bilateral activations of the rectus abdominis, internal and external obliques, latissimus dorsi, and lumbar and thoracic erector spinae were measured in a second sample of 15 men and 15 women while holding the test postures. No between-posture differences in net low back flexor moments were found (P = .111), but the lumbar spine was 28° more flexed in the v-sit than in the plank (P < .001). No between-posture differences were detected in the rectus abdominis (P = .397), external obliques (P = .204), internal obliques (P = .226), or lumbar erector spinae (P = .116) activation levels, but those of the thoracic erector spinae (P = .0253) and latissimus dorsi (P < .001) were greater in the plank than in the v-sit. Altogether, the findings suggest that differences between plank and v-sit holding times are most likely related to between-test differences in lumbar spine postures and shoulder demands.

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Fatemeh Ehsani, Rozita Hedayati, Rasool Bagheri and Shapour Jaberzadeh

Context: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) often presents with a dysfunction in deep abdominal muscles activity during standing tasks. Although some studies indicated that deep abdominal muscle activity improved during some functional tasks following stabilization exercise (SE), there is no study to evaluate the effect of SE on lateral abdominal muscles thickness during standing postural tasks. Objective: The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate the lateral abdominal muscles thickness in the participants with CLBP while standing on a balance board and (2) to compare the effects of SE and a general exercise (GE) program on the lateral muscles thickness changes. Methods: This was a between-groups, triple-blinded randomized controlled trial design. In total, 40 females with CLBP were randomly assigned into 2 groups:  GE (control group) and supervised progressive SE (experimental group). Diagnostic ultrasound imaging was used before and after the intervention to measure lateral abdominal muscles thickness during standing on 2 different levels of platform in the Biodex Balance System. Visual analog scale and Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire were used to evaluate changes in pain intensity and disability. Results: The results indicated significant increases in transverse abdominis muscle thickness during all standing tasks (P = .02) and significant decreases in pain intensity and disability following SE intervention (P < .001). However, the lateral abdominal muscle thicknesses were not changed after GE intervention while standing postural tasks (P > .05). The GE group revealed only significant decreases in pain intensity after intervention (P = .03). Conclusion: Supervised progressive SE improved the activity of deep abdominal muscles in standing postural tasks in the patients with CLBP.

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Michelle A. Sandrey and Jonathan G. Mitzel

Context:

Core training specifically for track and field athletes is vague, and it is not clear how it affects dynamic balance and core-endurance measures.

Objective:

To determine the effects of a 6-week core-stabilization-training program for high school track and field athletes on dynamic balance and core endurance.

Design:

Test–retest.

Setting:

High school in north central West Virginia.

Participants:

Thirteen healthy high school student athletes from 1 track and field team volunteered for the study.

Interventions:

Subjects completed pretesting 1 wk before data collection. They completed a 6-wk core-stabilization program designed specifically for track and field athletes. The program consisted of 3 levels with 6 exercises per level and lasted for 30 min each session 3 times per week. Subjects progressed to the next level at 2-wk intervals. After 6 wk, posttesting was conducted

Main Outcome Measures:

The subjects were evaluated using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) for posteromedial (PM), medial (M), and anteromedial (AM) directions; abdominal-fatigue test (AFT); back-extensor test (BET); and side-bridge test (SBT) for the right and left sides.

Results:

Posttest results significantly improved for all 3 directions of the SEBT (PM, M, and AM), AFT, BET, right SBT, and left SBT. Effect size was large for all variables except for PM and AM, where a moderate effect was noted. Minimal-detectable-change scores exceeded the error of the measurements for all dependent variables.

Conclusion:

After the 6-wk core-stabilization-training program, measures of the SEBT, AFT, BET, and SBT improved, thus advocating the use of this core-stabilization-training program for track and field athletes.

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Andrea Biscarini, Samuele Contemori and Giuditta Grolla

with low external overload or with no overload at all. The majority of the aforementioned studies concern exercises executed in a standing position on unstable surfaces. However, specific core-training exercises are typically performed in supine, prone, quadruped, bridge, or plank positions. The

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Sajad Bagherian, Khodayar Ghasempoor, Nader Rahnama and Erik A. Wikstrom

relationship between trunk muscle activity and lower-extremity movement such as jumping, which suggests that decreased core stability may predispose an athlete to injury 19 and that core training may reduce such risk. 6 , 19 Unfortunately, few studies have integrated core stabilization exercises into injury

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Jefferson Fagundes Loss, Edgar Santiago Wagner Neto, Tatiane Borsoi de Siqueira, Aline Dill Winck, Laura Silveira de Moura and Luiz Carlos Gertz

: 29934766 doi: 10.1007/s00192-018-3701-8 9. Tsai YJ , Chia CC , Lee PY , Lin LC , Kuo YL . Landing kinematics, sports performance, and isokinetic strength in adolescent male volleyball athletes: influence of core training [published online ahead of print April 16, 2019]. J Sport Rehabil

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Myles Murphy, Marshall Stockden, Ken Withers, William Breidahl and Jonathon Charlesworth

postoperatively ( Supplementary Table 1 [available online]). The patient completed rehabilitation 5 days per week, which consisted of 5 unsupervised conditioning days, 3 supervised shoulder rehabilitation sessions with the club physical therapist (MM) within a group environment, and 2 unsupervised leg and core