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Athanasios Mouratidis, Willy Lens and Maarten Vansteenkiste

We relied on self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000) to investigate to what extent autonomy-supporting corrective feedback (i.e., feedback that coaches communicate to their athletes after poor performance or mistakes) is associated with athletes’ optimal motivation and well-being. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study with 337 (67.1% males) Greek adolescent athletes (age M = 15.59, SD = 2.37) from various sports. Aligned with SDT, we found through path analysis that an autonomy-supporting versus controlling communication style was positively related to future intentions to persist and well-being and negatively related to ill-being. These relations were partially mediated by the perceived legitimacy of the corrective feedback (i.e., the degree of acceptance of corrective feedback), and, in turn, by intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, and external regulation for doing sports. Results indicate that autonomy-supporting feedback can be still motivating even in cases in which such feedback conveys messages of still too low competence.

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Tracy L. Pellett and Joyce M. Harrison

This study examined low- and high-skilled students’ (N = 68) immediate practice success in response to a teacher’s specific, congruent, and corrective feedback for different tasks (extension, refinement, and application). Data were gathered from an introductory 11-day volleyball unit taught to female seventh and eighth graders (two intact classes) by a physical education specialist. Practice success immediately after teacher feedback was characterized by significant improvement in performance by both ability groups for extension, refinement, and application tasks for the pass and refinement and application tasks for the set.

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Hans van der Mars, Paul Darst, Bill Vogler and Barbara Cusimano

Active supervision patterns of 18 elementary physical educators were studied in relation to physical activity levels of 3 students per teacher (n = 54) during allotted fitness time. Activity level was measured using the system for observing fitness instruction time (SOFIT) activity categories. Results showed that during fitness instruction teachers spent over 90% of the time in peripheral areas of the gym, actively moved about (7.9 sector changes per minute), and provided augmented feedback to students (3.7 total rpm). Students’ most predominant activity levels were very active, standing, and walking, respectively. Students’ moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels averaged 51.9%. Higher percentages of peripheral positioning and demonstrating by teachers correlated with lower amounts of standing still and higher amounts of very active and MVPA behavior. Higher rates of corrective feedback correlated with higher levels of students’ walking and MVPA behavior.

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Janice M. Bibik

This study examined how college-age students in beginning activity classes construct their self-perceptions of physical competence. Each class was videotaped, one class per week. During the last week of class, a perceived competence instrument was administered to the students (N = 50) and the teachers. Results indicated 50% of the students’ perceptions of their competence were congruent with the teachers’; 50% were incongruent (32% higher, 18% lower). The Revised Causal Dimension Scale, also administered at the end of the semester, indicated the predominant attribution was effort. Interviews revealed group characteristics regarding attribution for success, interpretation of feedback, and use of social comparison. Videotape analysis using the Dyadic Adaptation of CAFIAS indicated some differential treatment occurred; students whose perceptions of competence were lower than their instructor’s received more corrective feedback. It was concluded that the students interpreted themselves in the instructional context which accounted for their self-perceptions of competence; the teacher expectation effect played a role as well.

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Raymond R. Dunbar and Mary M. O’Sullivan

This study examined the effects of verbal and graphic feedback on the distribution of teacher verbal behaviors (positive and corrective feedback, praise, desist, and questioning) and the teacher’s use of student demonstrators during elementary coeducation physical education lessons. Data were collected over a 3-month period on two female nonphysical education specialist elementary teachers. A multiple baseline design was used to show the efficacy of the treatment. The results indicated that in baseline both teachers interacted with boys and girls inequitably on all variables. The intervention package and daily follow-up were influential in establishing more equitable teacher interaction patterns with boys and girls. The teachers’ use of demonstrators was also distributed more equitably between boys and girls following the intervention.

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A. Brian Nielsen and Larry Beauchamp

There has been some support for the notion that the analytical skills of prospective physical education teachers can be improved through systematic training (Armstrong, 1986; Beveridge & Gangstead, 1988). The ultimate pedagogical objective of such analysis is the provision of meaningful feedback to the learner (Hoffman, 1977). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of training in conceptual kinesiology on the feedback patterns of students engaged in physical education teacher preparation. Prior to and after 32 hours of instruction in kinesiological concepts, subjects (N=48) viewed several videotaped performances of a familiar and a novel skill and responded by providing corrective feedback as they would if the learners were present. Analysis of pretest/posttest differences indicated a significant increase in the corrective, accurate trial-specific feedback provided for both skills. Further analysis revealed that gender, major/minor status, and high school volleyball team experience were not related to feedback provision. However, feedback patterns were related to entry level and achievement level during the training course. It was concluded that training in conceptual kinesiology can enhance feedback-provision patterns during professional preparation.

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William A. Sparrow, Alison J. Shinkfield, Ross H. Day, Sarah Hollitt and Damien Jolley

Recognizing a class of movements as belonging to a “nominal” action category, such as walking, running, or throwing, is a fundamental human ability. Three experiments were undertaken to test the hypothesis that common (“prototypical”) features of moving displays could be learned by observation. Participants viewed moving stick-figure displays resembling forearm flexion movements in the saggital plane. Four displays (presentation displays) were first presented in which one or more movement dimensions were combined with 2 respective cues: direction (up, down), speed (fast, slow), and extent (long, short). Eight test displays were then shown, and the observer indicated whether each test display was like or unlike those previously seen. The results showed that without corrective feedback, a single cue (e.g., up or down) could be correctly recognized, on average, with the proportion correct between .66 and .87. When two cues were manipulated (e.g., up and slow), recognition accuracy remained high, ranging between .72 and .89. Three-cue displays were also easily identified. These results provide the first empirical demonstration of action-prototype learning for categories of human action and show how apparently complex kinematic patterns can be categorized in terms of common features or cues. It was also shown that probability of correct recognition of kinematic properties was reduced when the set of 4 presentation displays were more variable with respect to their shared kinematic property, such as speed or amplitude. Finally, while not conclusive, the results (from 2 of the 3 experiments) did suggest that similarity (or “likeness”) with respect to a common kinematic property (or properties) is more easily recognized than dissimilarity.

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Anita N. Lee

Coaches’ achievement is commonly evaluated by competition results or winning percentages. Teams with high winning percentages, rankings, or outstanding competition results are not only contributed by coaches, but also efforts of athletes and other stakeholders. The Standard 40 of the National Standards for Sport Coaches (2006) is to “utilize an objective and effective process for evaluation of self and staff,” which requires coaches to have the knowledge, abilities, and skills (KASs) to “collect direct feedback from athletes and identify ways to improve techniques and coaching style” and being able to perform “self-evaluation for professional growth and development” (NASPE, 2006, p. 23). The benchmarks of Standard 40 include input that should be collected from all stakeholders, such as athletes, parents, guardians, athletic administrators, and other coaches (NASPE, 2006). An effective program requires a coach to have effective communication skills, inter- and intra-personal interaction skills, leadership, and administrative skills, be able to provide positive and corrective feedback to athletes, and have the KASs to coach a sport in a selected competitive level. Evaluation methods are categorized into self-evaluation and evaluation by others, which include journals/dairies, video-analyses, checklists, surveys, and meetings/discussions. The advantages of journals/diaries are short and easy to write, and easy to retrieve and re-read, but coaches may not spend time to re-read them again. Video analyses are a great tool to allow multiple evaluators to observe coaching performance without time limit. Videos can be replayed, played in slow motion, placed online, and emailed to other evaluators to save travel time and cost. However, video analyses are time consuming to watch. It also requires video-taping equipments and skills. Checklists and surveys are easy to use, and can be used with a large number of participants, but they require specific skills to develop valid and reliable instruments. The response rate may be low unless the stakeholders are mandated to complete and return the checklists and surveys. Meetings and discussions allow direct feedback collection and conversations, but they could be redundant unless concise meeting agenda and discussion questions are designed.

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Kevin S. Spink and Kayla Fesser

reasons why teammates may serve as an effective channel for providing corrective feedback when required. First, teammates are constantly interacting and communicating with one another during game situations; therefore, it is possible that teammates may notice problems that a coach would miss. When

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Erica Pasquini and Melissa Thompson

research has confirmed that it is occurring in competitive youth sport ( Pasquini, Thompson, Gould, Speed, & Doan, 2019 ). More specifically, coaches of competitive youth soccer were shown to provide higher frequencies of general instruction, corrective feedback, and encouragement to their self