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Hallgeir Viken, Nils Petter Aspvik, Jan Erik Ingebrigtsen, Nina Zisko, Ulrik Wisløff and Dorthe Stensvold

The aim of this study was to identify how demographics, physical activity (PA) history, and environmental and biological correlates are associated with objectively measured PA among older adults. PA was assessed objectively in 850 older adults (70–77 years, 48% females) using the ActiGraph GT3X+ activity monitor. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to identify important PA correlates. The included correlates explained 27.0% of the variance in older adult’s PA. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), gender, and season were the most important correlates, explaining 10.1%, 3.9%, and 2.7% of the variance, respectively. PA was positively associated with CRF, females were more physically active than males, and PA increased in warmer months compared with colder months. This is, to our knowledge, the largest study of PA correlates in older adults that has combined objectively measured PA and CRF. Our findings provide new knowledge about how different correlates are associated with PA.

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Robert W. Motl and Rachel Bollaert

) for increasing physical activity and managing many of the functional, symptomatic, and QoL consequences. The aforementioned research was prompted by an early scoping literature review on the topic of physical activity and its measurement, prevalence, correlates, and consequences in MS ( Motl, Snook

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Hayley Guiney, Michael Keall and Liana Machado

). Thus, there is a need for health promotion initiatives aimed at increasing physical activity levels in that age group. Research on the predictors and correlates of physical activity in older adults can aid the effective design of such initiatives by helping to identify which segments of the older adult

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Mikihiro Sato, Jeremy S. Jordan and Daniel C. Funk

correlates of the observed change. Participants of a distance-running event were the focus of the study due to its popularity as a population-based organized sport opportunity ( Running USA, 2018 ). Literature Review Psychological Continuum Model The psychological continuum model (PCM: Funk & James, 2001

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Katherine L. Downing, Jo Salmon, Anna Timperio, Trina Hinkley, Dylan P. Cliff, Anthony D. Okely and Kylie D. Hesketh

reduce children’s screen time, 8 few interventions have targeted children’s sitting, despite success in adult populations. 9 – 11 Understanding influences or correlates of sitting is important as these may differ from the factors that influence screen time, and alternative intervention strategies may

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Jonathan M. Miller, Mark A. Pereira, Julian Wolfson, Melissa N. Laska, Toben F. Nelson and Dianne Neumark-Sztainer

adolescents often report less MVPA than white adolescents. 3 – 5 Differences in MVPA between the sexes and between ethnicities/races invite the question of whether correlates of MVPA, organized within the social–ecological framework of personal, social, and environmental correlates, 6 also differ

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Bas de Geus, Bart Degraeuwe, Grégory Vandenbulcke, Luc Int Panis, Isabelle Thomas, Joris Aertsens, Yves De Weerdt, Rudi Torfs and Romain Meeusen

Background:

For an accurate estimation of health benefits and hazards of utilitarian cycling, a prospective collection of bicycle usage data (exposure) is fundamental. Individual and environmental correlates are necessary to guide health promotion and traffic safety issues. Firstly, this study aims to report on utilitarian bicycle usage in Belgium, using a prospective data collection in regular adult commuter cyclists. Secondly, the association is explored between the individual variation in bicycle usage and individual and environmental correlates.

Methods:

1187 regular adult cyclists filled out travel diaries prospectively. Multivariate linear regression with Stepwise selection (SMLR) models studied the association between exposure and individual and environmental correlates.

Results:

Higher age and availability of cycle paths have a positive association with bicycle usage to work. Women cycle significant less compared with men, and so do cyclists with ‘poor’ or ‘average’ health. Living in an urban crown (opposed to city center) and living in Flanders (opposed to Brussels or Wallonia) is associated with significantly more cycling.

Conclusions:

Utilitarian cycling is related to regional differences, level of urbanization of the place of residence, availability of bicycle paths, and gender. These findings are useful in estimating health benefits and hazards of utilitarian cycling among regular Belgian cyclists.

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Koichiro Oka and Ai Shibata

Background:

There are no previous data on factors at multiple levels associated with the stages of change for dog walking. The current study examined psychosocial and environmental correlates of the stages of change for dog walking among Japanese dog owners.

Methods:

Dog owners (N = 1940) completed a self-administered questionnaire that included items about demographics as well as psychosocial (dog attachment, dog obligation, normative belief, social norm, social support, self-efficacy) and environmental (access to areas, neighborhood safety, enjoyable scenery, frequently observing others dog walking, area where dogs are allowed to be off the lead) factors. MANOVA and discriminant functional analysis were used.

Results:

The distribution of the dog owners across the stages was as follows: precontemplation (14.7%), contemplation (7.6%), preparation (39.7%), action (2.8%), and maintenance (35.2%). Although differences among the stages were found for all factors in MANOVA, the pattern of distinction among stages differed depending on the factors. Dog obligation and self-efficacy were the best predictors of the stages of change for dog walking.

Conclusions:

Although psychosocial and environmental correlates differed with the stages, psychosocial factors such as the sense of obligation and self-efficacy in dog walking seem to make relatively stronger contributions to distinctions among the stages.

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Kazuhiro Harada, Koichiro Oka, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Yoshio Nakamura, Shigeru Inoue and Teruichi Shimomitsu

The authors examined the relationship between strength-training behavior and perceived environment in older Japanese adults. An Internet-based survey was conducted of 293 adults age 68.2 ± 2.8 yr. The dependent variable was regular strength-training behavior. The IPAQ environment module, access to facilities for strength training, and home equipment for strength training were environmental factors. Logistic-regression analysis was employed. After demographic variables (gender, age, educational background, household income, body-mass index, self-rated health status, smoking habit, and residential area) were adjusted for, home equipment for strength training (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.50–3.06), access to facilities for strength training (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.32–4.85), and observing active people (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.06–4.58) were positively correlated with regular strength-training behavior. In conclusion, environmental factors associated with strength-training behavior were access to facilities for strength training, having home equipment for strength training, and observing active people.

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Cheryl Der Ananian, Sara Wilcox, Ken Watkins, Ruth P. Saunders and Alexandra E. Evans

Most people with arthritis are not regularly active. Understanding what factors influence exercise is essential for designing programs to increase participation. The objective of this study was to examine the correlates of exercise in people with arthritis. Using a cross-sectional design, sociodemographic, health-related, and psychosocial variables were collected from community-dwelling individuals with arthritis (N = 141). Associations with exercise level were examined with bivariate statistics (ANOVAs, chi-squares) and logistic-regression analyses. Exercisers were less likely than nonexercisers and insufficiently active people to report that arthritis negatively affected their physical and social functioning, and they reported more positive affect and greater self-efficacy (p < .05). Exercisers also reported less pain than nonexercisers (p < .05). In multiple logistic-regression analyses, self-efficacy and physical limitations remained independent predictors of exercise. The results suggest the need to target exercise self-efficacy when designing exercise interventions. Results also suggest the need to tailor exercise programs to individuals’ physical limitations.