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Michael VanNostrand, Brittany Belanger, Gabriel Purin, Susan L. Kasser, and Michael Cannizzaro

. The authors speculated that the increased PFC activation of the MS group was due to compensatory cortical activation necessary to make up for greater CMI ( Hernandez et al., 2016 ). It is important to note that the authors only investigated brain activation differences between the motor single task of

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Christopher M. Janelle, Charles H. Hillman, Ross J. Apparies, Nicholas P. Murray, Launi Meili, Elizabeth A. Fallon, and Bradley D. Hatfield

The purpose of this study was to examine whether variability in gaze behavior and cortical activation would differentiate expert (n = 12) and nonexpert (n = 13) small-bore rifle shooters. Spectral-activity and eye-movement data were collected concurrently during the course of a regulation indoor sequence of 40 shots from the standing position. Experts exhibited significantly superior shooting performance, as well as a significantly longer quiet eye period preceding shot execution than did nonexperts. Additionally, expertise interacted with hemispheric activation levels: Experts demonstrated a significant increase in left-hemisphere alpha and beta power, accompanied by a reduction in right-hemisphere alpha and beta power, during the preparatory period just prior to the shot. Nonexperts exhibited similar hemispheric asymmetry, but to a lesser extent than did experts. Findings suggest systematic expertise-related differences in ocular and cortical activity during the preparatory phase leading up to the trigger pull that reflects more optimal organization of the neural structures needed to achieve high-level performance.

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Satoshi Matsuno, Takuya Yoshiike, Atsushi Yoshimura, Sachiyo Morita, Yusuke Fujii, Motoyasu Honma, Yuji Ozeki, and Kenichi Kuriyama

consent was obtained. Considering that handedness reflects hemispherical distribution in the cortical activation ( Siebner et al., 2002 ), it is speculated that the dominant foot could also influence the SPPT-related cortical activation pattern. Therefore, both the dominant hand and foot of the

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Chih-Yen Chang and Tsung-Min Hung

performance RCT Note . RCT = randomized controlled trials. Frontal theta power, especially frontal midline theta (Fmθ), was considered an indicator for the investigation of top-down attentional processes. Neurophysiological evidence has suggested that Fmθ is generated by cortical activation in the anterior

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Dong-Sung Choi, Hwang-Jae Lee, Yong-II Shin, Ahee Lee, Hee-Goo Kim, and Yun-Hee Kim

. However, most studies examined the vibration intensity only at a low frequency and did not systematically compare changes in numerous cortical areas or cerebral cortical activity. If optimal vibration frequencies with positive effects on cerebral cortical activation are identified, efficient vibration

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Pai-Yun Cheng, Hsiao-Feng Chieh, Chien-Ju Lin, Hsiu-Yun Hsu, Jia-Jin J. Chen, Li-Chieh Kuo, and Fong-Chin Su

; Sato et al., 2007 ; Shibuya, 2011 ; Shibuya, Kuboyama, & Tanaka, 2014 ; Takeda et al., 2007 ). It has been speculated that higher force intensity can cause higher cortical activation during grip tasks in young adults ( Dai, Liu, Sahgal, Brown, & Yue, 2001 ; Shibuya et al., 2014 ), and the level of

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Charles Germain, Alexandra Perrot, Christophe Tomasino, Julien Bonnal, Canan Ozsancak, Pascal Auzou, and Fabrice Prieur

cortical activation patterns related to speed control in the elderly . Experimental Brain Research, 193 ( 3 ), 445 – 454 . 10.1007/s00221-008-1643-y Hausdorff , J.M. ( 2005 ). Gait variability: Methods, modeling and meaning . Journal of NeuroEngineering

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Semyon Slobounov, Robert Simon, Richard Tutwiler, and Matthew Rearick

The question regarding the invariant movement properties the central nervous system may organize to accomplish different motor task demands as reflected in EEG remains unsolved. Surprisingly, no systematic electrocortical research in humans has related movement preparation with different movement distance, although this area has been widely investigated in the field of motor control. This study examined whether the amplitude of discrete wrist movements influences the various EEG components both in time and frequency domains. Time-domain averaging techniques and Morlet wavelet transforms of EEG single trials were applied in order to extract three components [BP(0), Nl, and LPS] of movement related potentials (MRP) and to quantify changes in oscillatory activity of the movement-induced EEG waveforms accompanying 20, 40, and 60° unilateral wrist flexion movements. The experimental manipulations induced systematic changes in BP(0) and Nl amplitude along the midline (Fz, Cz, and Pz) with 20° movement showing the most negativity and 60° the least. The dominant energy within a 30-50 frequency cluster from bilateral precentral (C3, Cz, C4), frontal (F3, Fz, F4), and parietal (P3, Pz, P4) areas with maximum at vertex (Cz) also appeared to be sensitive to movement amplitude with the least power observed during 60° wrist flexion. This suggests that movement amplitude may be a controllable variable that is highly related with task-specific cortical activation primarily at frontocentral areas as reflected in EEG.

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Brice T. Cleland and Sheila Schindler-Ivens

showed lateralized and elevated cortical activation during hemiparetic walking was unavoidably confounded by stroke-related changes in the spatiotemporal characteristics of the gait cycle, such as decreased swing phase symmetry. Indeed, neuroplastic adaptations to stroke, altered motor commands, and

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Bradley D. Hatfield

reported by Haufler, Spalding, Santa Maria, and Hatfield ( 2000 , 2002 ). Electroencephalography was recorded across the scalp topography in the two skill groups during the aiming period leading just prior to the trigger pull to determine skill-based differences in regional cortical activation, and robust