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Travis Anderson, Amy R. Lane and Anthony C. Hackney

indicator of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis) activity 6 and is termed the cortisol awakening response (CAR). Specifically, CAR typically represents a 50% to 75% increase in cortisol concentrations, 7 peaking at approximately 30 to 45 minutes after waking. 8 CAR is a manifestation of HPA

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Edith Filaire, Alain Massart, Jiewen Hua and Christine Le Scanff


The aims of study were to examine the eating behaviors among 26 professional female tennis players and to assess the diurnal patterns of stress hormones through the measurement of awakening and diurnal profiles of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol concentrations.


Eating behaviors were assessed through three questionnaires (Eating Attitudes Test-26; Eating Disorders Inventory 2; and Body Shape Questionnaire), food intake by a 7-day diet record, and menstrual status by questionnaire. Perceived stress scale and anxiety state were also evaluated. Saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min, 60 min, and 12 hr post awakening after 6-days’ rest.


Forty-six percent of tennis players presented Disordered Eating attitudes (DE) (n = 12) with a lower body mass index, and higher state anxiety as compared with the group without DE. No differences in the Perceived Stress Scale scores were noted. Mean energy intake, protein and carbohydrates intakes were lower (p > .05) in the DE group as compared with the group without DE. Although in both groups, sAA concentrations presented a decrease in the first 30 min after awakening, and then progressively rose toward the afternoon, DE players exhibited reduced concentrations of the sAA with a decrease in its overall day secretion. Moreover, they showed a higher overall day secretion of salivary cortisol and a higher Cortisol Awakening Response.


These results suggest that the activity of the sympathetic nervous system is impaired whereas the cortisol awakening response is enhanced. The long-term consequences of these modifications on health remain to be elucidated.

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Laura E. Juliff, Jeremiah J. Peiffer and Shona L. Halson

cortisol measure followed 30 minutes later by an additional measure to calculate cortisol awakening response (the difference between the second and first morning sample). Salivary cortisol measures were later sampled 10 minutes prior to the game, 10 minutes postgame, 1 hour postgame, at bedtime, and upon

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Benjamin G. Serpell, Barry G. Horgan, Carmen M.E. Colomer, Byron Field, Shona L. Halson and Christian J. Cook

variables with muscle soreness, sleep variables with sal-C, or muscle soreness and sal-C. Therefore, more sleep may not have been effective in reducing sal-C. An alternative plausible explanation for the changes in sal-C might be in observations on the cortisol awakening response (CAR). The CAR is the rapid

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Blair Crewther, Konrad Witek, Paweł Draga, Piotr Zmijewski and Zbigniew Obmiński

. , & Clow , A. ( 2013 ). State variation in the cortisol awakening response . Stress, 16 ( 5 ), 483 – 492 . PubMed ID: 23805796 doi:10.3109/10253890.2013.817552 10.3109/10253890.2013.817552 Leyk , D. , Gorges , W. , Ridder , D. , Wunderlich , M. , Ruther , T. , Sievert , A. , & Essfeld

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Sigridur L. Gudmundsdottir

. Anderson T , Wideman L . Exercise and the cortisol awakening response: a systematic review . Sports Med Open . 2017 ; 3 ( 1 ): 37 . PubMed ID: 29019089 doi:10.1186/s40798-017-0102-3 2. Becker SP , Sidol CA , Van Dyk TR , Epstein JN , Beebe DW . Intraindividual variability of sleep

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John J. Reilly, Adrienne R. Hughes, Xanne Janssen, Kathryn R. Hesketh, Sonia Livingstone, Catherine Hill, Ruth Kipping, Catherine E. Draper, Anthony D. Okely and Anne Martin

Sleep restriction Nap duration Increasing hours of sleep per bout Cortisol awakening response Sleep trajectories A tenet of the GRADE-ADOLOPMENT process is that a consensus on the balance of adoption, adaptation, and de novo creation of recommendations is reached. 3 , 18 The de novo creation of a

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Bindu P. Gopalan, Mary Dias, Karthika Arumugam, Reena R. D’Souza, Mathew Perumpil, Prasanna Kulkarni, Udaykumar Ranga and Anita Shet

: 21628670 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jir214 10. Cahn BR , Goodman MS , Peterson CT , Maturi R , Mills PJ . Yoga, meditation and mind-body health: increased BDNF, cortisol awakening response, and altered inflammatory marker expression after a 3-month yoga and meditation retreat . Front Hum Neurosci

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André L. Estrela, Aline Zaparte, Jeferson D. da Silva, José Cláudio Moreira, James E. Turner and Moisés E. Bauer

.2165/00007256-199010040-00003 Stalder , T. , Kirschbaum , C. , Kudielka , B.M. , Adam , E.K. , Pruessner , J.C. , Wust , S. , … Clow , A. ( 2016 ). Assessment of the cortisol awakening response: expert consensus guidelines . Psychoneuroendocrinology, 63 , 414 – 432 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.10.010 10

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Mohamed Romdhani, Nizar Souissi, Yassine Chaabouni, Kacem Mahdouani, Tarak Driss, Karim Chamari and Omar Hammouda

– 115 . PubMed ID: 25770701 doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.03.013 33. Devine JK , Wolf JM . Determinants of cortisol awakening responses to naps and nighttime sleep . Psychoneuroendocrinology . 2016 ; 63 : 128 – 134 . PubMed ID: 26441231 doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.09.016 34. Vale R , Rosa