Regular physical activity is protective against, and beneficial for, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia, and Alzheimer’s disease. The mechanisms underlying these benefits remain unknown although it has been suggested that exercise-induced changes in the circadian pattern of cortisol secretion may be implicated. Fitness, salivary cortisol levels (0 and 30 min postawakening, midday, 5 p.m., and 9 p.m.), and cognitive function were determined in a group of amnestic MCI patients (n = 39) before and after a three-month exercise program (n = 19) or usual care (n = 20). At baseline, fitness measures were positively correlated with peak levels of cortisol and a greater fall in cortisol concentration from peak levels to midday. The exercise intervention successfully increased fitness and resulted in a greater fall in cortisol concentration from peak to midday, compared with the control group. The exercise intervention enhanced indices of executive function, although memory, mood, and functionality were not affected.
Juan Tortosa-Martínez, Angela Clow, Nuria Caus-Pertegaz, Gloria González-Caballero, Immaculada Abellán-Miralles, and María José Saenz
Candace M. Hogue, Mary D. Fry, Andrew C. Fry, and Sarah D. Pressman
Research in achievement goal perspective theory suggests that the creation of a caring/task-involving (C/TI) climate results in more advantageous psychological and behavioral responses relative to an ego-involving (EI) climate; however, research has not yet examined the physiological consequences associated with psychological stress in relation to climate. Given the possible health and fitness implications of certain physiological stress responses, it is critical to understand this association. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine whether an EI climate procures increases in the stress-responsive hormone cortisol, as well as negative psychological changes, following the learning of a new skill, compared with a C/TI climate. Participants (n = 107) were randomized to a C/TI or an EI climate in which they learned how to juggle for 30 min over the course of 2 hr. Seven salivary cortisol samples were collected during this period. Results indicated that EI participants experienced greater cortisol responses after the juggling session and significantly greater anxiety, stress, shame, and self-consciousness relative to C/TI participants. In contrast, the C/TI participants reported greater enjoyment, effort, self-confidence, and interest and excitement regarding future juggling than the EI participants. These findings indicate that motivational climates may have a significant impact on both the physiological and psychological responses of participants.
Eleanor Quested, Jos A. Bosch, Victoria E. Burns, Jennifer Cumming, Nikos Ntoumanis, and Joan L. Duda
Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) posits basic psychological need satisfaction (BPNS) as essential for optimal functioning and health. Grounded in this framework, the current study examined the role of BPNS in dancers’ cognitive appraisals and hormonal and emotional responses to performance stress. Dancers reported their degree of BPNS 1 month before a solo performance. Threat and challenge appraisals of the solo were recorded 2 hr before the performance. Salivary cortisol and anxiety were measured 15 min before, and 15, 30, 45, and 60 min postperformance. Higher BPNS was associated with lower cortisol responses and anxiety intensity. Challenge appraisals mediated the association between BPNS and cortisol. Threat appraisals mediated the BPNS–anxiety intensity relationship. These findings point to the potential importance of performers’ BPNS for optimal emotional and hormonal homeostasis in performance conditions.
Mauricio Castro-Sepulveda, Jorge Cancino, Rodrigo Fernández-Verdejo, Cristian Pérez-Luco, Sebastian Jannas-Vela, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Juan Del Coso, and Hermann Zbinden-Foncea
, leading to abnormally high [Na + ] in sweat (i.e., >70 mmol/L; Del Coso et al., 2016 ). Notably, in in vitro and animal models, cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) have been reported to regulate the expression of CFTR. Cortisol downregulates CFTR expression ( Laube et al., 2015 ), whereas testosterone
Stijn V. Mentzel, Bjoern Krenn, Dennis Dreiskaemper, and Bernd Strauss
proposed relationship has been further supported by research ( Bateup et al., 2002 ; Lautenbach, 2017 ), with testosterone being strongly linked to dominance and aggression ( Welling et al., 2016 ), whereas cortisol is released in response to physical and psychological stress ( Berger et al., 2016
Diogo V. Leal, Lee Taylor, and John Hough
overreaching. 3 Resting cortisol and testosterone concentrations have been proposed as overreaching/OTS markers, as they provide a ratio of catabolic to anabolic activity. 3 However, their alterations at rest are inconsistent when comparing pre with post periods of overload. 6 , 7 Recently, their acute
Nicholas D. Gilson, Caitlin Hall, Angela Renton, Norman Ng, and William von Hippel
office environment at our laboratory. We also compared hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis stress response via salivary cortisol samples taken at the start and end of each workday, based on the rationale that the magnitude of the typical diurnal decrease in cortisol between these 2 time points was
Paul E. Luebbers, Matthew J. Andre, Andrew C. Fry, Luke A. Olsen, Keith B. Pfannestiel, and Dimitrije Cabarkapa
A range of physiological responses occurs during acute and chronic exercise, among them changes in testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations. In humans, T is required for protein synthesis, glycogen replenishment, and preventing protein breakdown, while C works antagonistically to T by
Caoimhe Tiernan, Mark Lyons, Tom Comyns, Alan M. Nevill, and Giles Warrington
with just a 1-week increase or “spike” in training load, players are more susceptible to injury. 5 Monitoring markers are imperative to ensure sufficient recovery, manage stress (both physiological and psychological), and optimize training for peak performance. 5 , 6 Cortisol is a stress hormone found
David R. Hooper, William J. Kraemer, Rebecca L. Stearns, Brian R. Kupchak, Brittanie M. Volk, William H. DuPont, Carl M. Maresh, and Douglas J. Casa
would be considered as suggestive of androgen deficiency (<8 nmol·L −1 , 231 ng·dL −1 ) by today’s standards, 10 although McColl et al 9 did report testosterone concentrations that fall under a “gray zone” classification (8–12 nmol·L −1 , 231–346 ng·dL −1 ). In terms of cortisol, however, many cross