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Candace M. Hogue, Mary D. Fry, Andrew C. Fry and Sarah D. Pressman

Research in achievement goal perspective theory suggests that the creation of a caring/task-involving (C/TI) climate results in more advantageous psychological and behavioral responses relative to an ego-involving (EI) climate; however, research has not yet examined the physiological consequences associated with psychological stress in relation to climate. Given the possible health and fitness implications of certain physiological stress responses, it is critical to understand this association. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine whether an EI climate procures increases in the stress-responsive hormone cortisol, as well as negative psychological changes, following the learning of a new skill, compared with a C/TI climate. Participants (n = 107) were randomized to a C/TI or an EI climate in which they learned how to juggle for 30 min over the course of 2 hr. Seven salivary cortisol samples were collected during this period. Results indicated that EI participants experienced greater cortisol responses after the juggling session and significantly greater anxiety, stress, shame, and self-consciousness relative to C/TI participants. In contrast, the C/TI participants reported greater enjoyment, effort, self-confidence, and interest and excitement regarding future juggling than the EI participants. These findings indicate that motivational climates may have a significant impact on both the physiological and psychological responses of participants.

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Juan Tortosa-Martínez, Angela Clow, Nuria Caus-Pertegaz, Gloria González-Caballero, Immaculada Abellán-Miralles and María José Saenz

Regular physical activity is protective against, and beneficial for, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia, and Alzheimer’s disease. The mechanisms underlying these benefits remain unknown although it has been suggested that exercise-induced changes in the circadian pattern of cortisol secretion may be implicated. Fitness, salivary cortisol levels (0 and 30 min postawakening, midday, 5 p.m., and 9 p.m.), and cognitive function were determined in a group of amnestic MCI patients (n = 39) before and after a three-month exercise program (n = 19) or usual care (n = 20). At baseline, fitness measures were positively correlated with peak levels of cortisol and a greater fall in cortisol concentration from peak levels to midday. The exercise intervention successfully increased fitness and resulted in a greater fall in cortisol concentration from peak to midday, compared with the control group. The exercise intervention enhanced indices of executive function, although memory, mood, and functionality were not affected.

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Eleanor Quested, Jos A. Bosch, Victoria E. Burns, Jennifer Cumming, Nikos Ntoumanis and Joan L. Duda

Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) posits basic psychological need satisfaction (BPNS) as essential for optimal functioning and health. Grounded in this framework, the current study examined the role of BPNS in dancers’ cognitive appraisals and hormonal and emotional responses to performance stress. Dancers reported their degree of BPNS 1 month before a solo performance. Threat and challenge appraisals of the solo were recorded 2 hr before the performance. Salivary cortisol and anxiety were measured 15 min before, and 15, 30, 45, and 60 min postperformance. Higher BPNS was associated with lower cortisol responses and anxiety intensity. Challenge appraisals mediated the association between BPNS and cortisol. Threat appraisals mediated the BPNS–anxiety intensity relationship. These findings point to the potential importance of performers’ BPNS for optimal emotional and hormonal homeostasis in performance conditions.

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Mauricio Castro-Sepulveda, Jorge Cancino, Rodrigo Fernández-Verdejo, Cristian Pérez-Luco, Sebastian Jannas-Vela, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Juan Del Coso and Hermann Zbinden-Foncea

, leading to abnormally high [Na + ] in sweat (i.e., >70 mmol/L; Del Coso et al., 2016 ). Notably, in in vitro and animal models, cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) have been reported to regulate the expression of CFTR. Cortisol downregulates CFTR expression ( Laube et al., 2015 ), whereas testosterone

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Caoimhe Tiernan, Mark Lyons, Tom Comyns, Alan M. Nevill and Giles Warrington

with just a 1-week increase or “spike” in training load, players are more susceptible to injury. 5 Monitoring markers are imperative to ensure sufficient recovery, manage stress (both physiological and psychological), and optimize training for peak performance. 5 , 6 Cortisol is a stress hormone found

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Bruno P. Melo, Débora A. Guariglia, Rafael E. Pedro, Dennis A. Bertolini, Solange de Paula Ramos, Sidney B. Peres and Solange M. Franzói de Moraes

variability, decreased cortisol levels, and oxidative stress. 4 – 8 Due to the fact that prolonged use of ART can cause several physiological changes, including mitochondrial dysfunction and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis impairment; ILWHA are more susceptible to increase oxidative stress, cortisol

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Chun-Chih Wang, Brandon Alderman, Chih-Han Wu, Lin Chi, Su-Ru Chen, I-Hua Chu and Yu-Kai Chang

responses such as cortisol with cognitive improvements following acute exercise ( Koutsandréou, Niemann, Wegner, & Budde, 2016 ; McMorris & Hale, 2015 ). For example, Budde et al. ( 2010 ) found improved performance on a working memory task (Letter Digit Span) following a 12-min bout of aerobic exercise

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Travis Anderson, Amy R. Lane and Anthony C. Hackney

status of the athlete. Cortisol, the primary corticosteroid hormone in humans, follows a diurnal pattern of secretion, with the greatest concentrations often observed in the morning upon waking. 5 Considering the period immediately after waking, the rate of the morning increase can be an important

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Tony Adebero, Brandon John McKinlay, Alexandros Theocharidis, Zach Root, Andrea R. Josse, Panagiota Klentrou and Bareket Falk

Intense exercise has been shown to increase circulating hormonal concentrations in both athletic adults ( 13 , 17 , 22 ) and youth ( 23 , 28 , 33 , 37 ). An intense exercise session alters the homeostasis of the endocrine system by elevating both catabolic (eg, cortisol, adrenaline, glucagon) and

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Benjamin G. Serpell, Barry G. Horgan, Carmen M.E. Colomer, Byron Field, Shona L. Halson and Christian J. Cook

interesting one, especially considering cortisol and testosterone are increasingly being investigated in a sporting context as highly malleable and functionally relevant biosignals of athlete readiness. 6 Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group, which may affect mood, behavior, neuromuscular