This study examined how practitioners who provide sport psychology support use counseling principles and skills to develop practitioner-athlete relationships. Semistructured interviews were conducted with thirteen competent practitioners (Mean age = 41.2 ± 10.9 years old, five men, eight women). Thematic analysis revealed that the participants used a range of counseling principles to develop practitioner-athlete relationships including: the facilitative conditions, self-disclosure, counseling skills, the formation of working alliances, and awareness of the unreal relationship. The participants also described using noncounseling strategies (e.g., gaining an understanding of the athlete’s sporting environment) to build relationships with their athletes. There was considerable variation between the participants both in the training that they had received in counseling principles and skills, and how they applied them. It was concluded that counseling principles and skills play a significant role in the development of practitioner-athlete relationships.
Rory J. Mack, Jeff D. Breckon, Paul D. O’Halloran and Joanne Butt
from counseling and clinical psychologies with athletes. To date, these include CB therapy (CBT; McArdle & Moore, 2012 ) and derivatives of this approach (e.g., rational-emotive-behavior therapy; Turner & Barker, 2014 ), solution-focused therapy ( Høigaard & Johansen, 2004 ), and third-wave therapies
Robert C. Hilliard, Lorenzo A. Redmond and Jack C. Watson II
counseling in college students (e.g., Eisenberg, Downs, Golberstein, & Zivin, 2009 ; Topkaya, Vogel, & Brenner, 2017 ; Vogel, Wade, & Hackler, 2007 ). These findings have been found consistently across several cultures (e.g., Topkaya et al., 2017 ; Vogel et al., 2017 ), suggesting that it could be a
Matthew D. Bird, Graig M. Chow, Gily Meir and Jaison Freeman
numerous barriers they face when seeking help. Barriers faced by student-athletes include stigma ( Gulliver, Griffiths, & Christensen, 2012 ), a lack of time ( Lopez & Levy, 2013 ), and a less favorable attitude toward help-seeking when compared to non-athletes ( Watson, 2005 ). Online counseling (OC
Anass Arrogi, Astrid Schotte, An Bogaerts, Filip Boen and Jan Seghers
, organizational, and environmental). 1 There is accumulating evidence supporting the effectiveness of workplace physical activity (PA) interventions. 1 – 4 At the intrapersonal level, worksite individualized counseling has been found to be efficacious. 5 More specifically, individualized PA counseling
Marjo B. Rinne, Seppo I. Miilunpalo and Ari O. Heinonen
There is a lack of knowledge of the motor abilities required in different exercise modes which are needed when counseling sedentary middle-aged people to start a physically active lifestyle.
Nominal group technique was used to establish the consensus statement concerning motor abilities and physical fitness in 31 exercise modes.
Walking, running, jogging, and calisthenics were regarded as the most suitable exercise modes for most people with no specific requirements. The most demanding exercise modes of evaluated exercise modes were roller skating, downhill skiing, and martial arts, requiring all five motor abilities. Four abilities were necessary in skating, jazz dance, and ice hockey. When exercising is target-oriented, endurance is trained evidently in 27 out of 31 and muscle strength in 22 out of 31 exercise modes.
The consensus statement gives theoretical basis for the components of motor abilities and physical fitness components in different exercise modes. The statement is instructive in order to promote health-enhancing physical activity among sedentary people. This study completes the selection of the exercise modes more detailed than current PA recommendation and guidelines for public health. A variety of exercise modes with one or none motor requirements is available to start. When amount and intensity of exercise is increased the training effects can be found in most components of motor ability and physical fitness.
James R. Vallerand, Ryan E. Rhodes, Gordan J. Walker and Kerry S. Courneya
participants adhere to a set exercise behavior target in a highly-controlled setting, and, thus, rarely target key theory-based correlates of exercise behavior for the purpose of supporting participants self-manage their own pursuit of increasing their exercise behavior. 10 Conversely, telephone counseling
D. Gant Ward, Scott D. Sandstedt, Richard H. Cox and Niels C. Beck
The purpose of this investigation was to identify several essential counseling competencies for psychologists working with athletes. U.S. experts judged 17 athlete-counseling competencies to be essential for ethical psychotherapy practice with athlete clients. Implications for this first set of specific athletecounseling competencies include (a) helping psychologists and students not trained in athlete-counseling and/or sport psychology identify areas in which they need further education, training, or experiences in order to competently work with athlete clients; (b) further defining the specialty of athletecounseling; and (c) assisting athlete clients, as well as non-athlete clients, in distinguishing among available psychological services. Suggestions for future athlete-counseling competency research were also presented.
Eileen S. Nelson
The results of this study suggest that college athletes can improve their academic performance through participation in career counseling. Subjects included 34 female and 98 male freshman athletes enrolled in their first semester in college. They were randomly assigned to two groups. The experimental group attended five career counseling sessions with an academic advisor. This group was found to have significantly higher first semester GPAs, more changes in choice of college majors, and higher expressed satisfaction with their majors as compared to the second, or control, group that received no career counseling. At the end of the freshman year, the GPAs of experimental subjects, who had received career counseling, did not differ significantly from those of the rest of the freshman class (nonathletes). However, GPAs of athletes who did not receive any career counseling were significantly lower than both those of the experimental group and the rest of the freshman class.
Jeff David Breckon, Lynne Halley Johnston and Andrew Hutchison
Physical activity (PA) counseling is becoming commonplace in primary care settings, although there is a high degree of variation in the quality and quantity of this intervention. The purpose of this review was to examine the theory on which the intervention is based and the level of treatment fidelity applied at all stages of the intervention.
A systematic review was carried out for interventions that reported an element of PA counseling. Results were mapped according to a treatment fidelity framework of intervention design, training, delivery, receipt, and enactment.
Most studies were underpinned by the transtheoretical model. Few studies described the frequency or duration of PA counseling training or competence level of the interventionist. The most common outcome measures were behavioral and physiological, with few studies including a cognitive outcome measure.
Most research focuses on outcome and significance rather than intervention processes, with limited consideration of treatment fidelity. The design, training, delivery, and receipt of PA counseling should be reported more thoroughly.