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Prue Cormie, Jeffrey M. McBride and Grant O. McCaulley

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the impact of load on the power-, force- and velocity-time curves during the jump squat. The analysis of these curves for the entire movement at a sampling frequency of 200–500 Hz averaged across 18 untrained male subjects is the most novel aspect of this study. Jump squat performance was assessed in a randomized fashion across five different external loads: 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 kg (equivalent to 0 ± 0, 18 ± 4, 37 ± 8, 55 ± 12, 74 ± 15% of 1RM, respectively). The 0-kg loading condition (i.e., body mass only) was the load that maximized peak power output, displaying a significantly (p ≤ .05) greater value than the 40, 60, and 80 kg loads. The shape of the force-, power-, and velocity-time curves changed significantly as the load applied to the jump squat increased. There was a significantly greater rate of power development in the 0 kg load in comparison with all other loads examined. As the first comprehensive illustration of how the entire power-, force-, and velocity-time curves change across various loading conditions, this study provides extensive evidence that a load equaling an individuals body mass (i.e., external load = 0 kg) maximizes power output in untrained individuals during the jump squat.

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Marco Rathschlag and Daniel Memmert

The present study examined the relationship between self-generated emotions and physical performance. All participants took part in five emotion induction conditions (happiness, anger, anxiety, sadness, and an emotion-neutral state) and we investigated their influence on the force of the finger musculature (Experiment 1), the jump height of a counter-movement jump (Experiment 2), and the velocity of a thrown ball (Experiment 3). All experiments showed that participants could produce significantly better physical performances when recalling anger or happiness emotions in contrast to the emotion-neutral state. Experiments 1 and 2 also revealed that physical performance in the anger and the happiness conditions was significantly enhanced compared with the anxiety and the sadness conditions. Results are discussed in relation to the Lazarus (1991a, 2000a) cognitive-motivational-relational (CMR) theory framework.

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Paulo H. Marchetti, Maria I.V. Orselli and Marcos Duarte

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of unilateral and bilateral fatigue on both postural and power bipedal tasks. Ten healthy subjects performed two tasks: bipedal quiet standing and a maximal bipedal counter-movement jumping before and after unilateral (with either the dominant or nondominant lower limb) and bilateral (with both lower limbs) fatigue. We employed two force plates (one under each lower limb) to measure the ground reaction forces and center of pressure produced by subjects during the tasks. To quantify the postural sway during quiet standing, we calculated the resultant center of pressure (COP) speed and COP area of sway, as well as the mean weight distribution between lower limbs. To quantify the performance during the countermovement jumping, we calculated the jump height and the peak force of each lower limb. We observed that both unilateral and bilateral fatigue affected the performance of maximal voluntary jumping and standing tasks and that the effects of unilateral and bilateral fatigue were stronger in the dominant limb than in the nondominant limb during bipedal tasks. We conclude that unilateral neuromuscular fatigue affects both postural and power tasks negatively.

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Albertas Skurvydas and Marius Brazaitis

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of plyometric training (PT) on central and peripheral (muscle) fatigue in prepubertal girls and boys. The boys (n = 13, age 10.3 ± 0.3 years) and girls (n = 13, age, 10.2 ± 0.3 years) performed continuous 2-min maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) before and after 16 high-intensity PT sessions. PT comprised two training sessions per week of 30 jumps in each session with 20 s between jumps. The greatest effect of PT was on excitation–contraction coupling, (twitch force increased by 323% in boys and 21% in girls) and height of a counter–movement jump (increased by 37% in boys and 38% in girls). In contrast, the quadriceps voluntary activation index, central activation ratio, and MVC did not change significantly after PT. The thickness of the quadriceps muscle increased by 9% in boys and 14% in girls after PT. In conclusion, boys and girls demonstrated similar changes in indicators of central fatigue (50–60% decrease) and peripheral fatigue (45–55% decrease) after MVC before and after PT.

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Hichem Souissi, Hamdi Chtourou, Anis Chaouachi, Mohamed Dogui, Karim Chamari, Nizar Souissi and Mohamed Amri

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of time-of-day-specific training on the diurnal variations of short-term performances in boys. Twenty-four boys were randomized into a morning-training-group (07:00–08:00h; MTG), an evening training-group (17:00–18:00h; ETG) and a control-group (CG). They performed four tests of strength and power (unilateral isometric maximal voluntary contraction of the knee extensor muscles, Squat-Jump, Counter-Movement-Jump and Wingate tests) at 07:00 and 17:00h just before (T0) and after 6 weeks of resistance training (T1). In T0, the results revealed that short-term performances improved and oral temperature increased significantly from morning to afternoon (amplitudes between 2.36 and 17.5% for both oral temperature and performances) for all subjects. In T1, the diurnal variations of performances were blunted in the MTG and persisted in the ETG and CG. Moreover, the training program increase muscle strength and power especially after training in the morning hours and the magnitude of gains was greater at the time-of-day-specific training than at other times. In conclusion, these results suggest that time-of-day-specific training increases the child’s anaerobic performances specifically at this time-of-day. Moreover, the improvement of these performances was greater after morning than evening training.

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Ayoub Asadi, Alireza Farsi, Behrouz Abdoli, Esmaeel Saemi and Jared M. Porter

horizontal distance. Similar results were observed by Makaruk et al. ( 2012 ). In that study, participants performing the counter movement jump exhibited greater knee flexion when attention was directed externally, which resulted in enhanced jumping ability. The authors attributed the jumping enhancement to

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Ryan G. Overmayer and Matthew W. Driller

jump height, and counter movement jump height. In addition to improved BLa clearance, Zelikovski et al 13 and Wiener et al 15 have both revealed improvements in subsequent performance with the implementation of ISPC when compared with a passive control. Zelikovski et al 13 studied 11 untrained but

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Shannon O’Donnell, Christopher M. Beaven and Matthew Driller

GymAware linear position transducer for measuring counter-movement jump performance in female athletes . Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci . 2017 ; 22 ( 1 ): 101 – 107 . doi:10.1080/1091367X.2017.1399892 10.1080/1091367X.2017.1399892 21. Dunn O . Multiple comparisons using rank sums . Technometrics . 1964 ; 6

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Mathieu Lacome, Christopher Carling, Jean-Philippe Hager, Gerard Dine and Julien Piscione

.2165/00007256-199520050-00003 10.2165/00007256-199520050-00003 8571005 18. Mathieu B , Peeters A , Piscione J , Lacome M . Reliability of counter-movement jump performance, cycle ergometer sprint performance and creatine kinase concentration in team sport athletes: interest for fatigue monitoring . In: Baca A

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Jordan D. Philpott, Chris Donnelly, Ian H. Walshe, Elizabeth E. MacKinley, James Dick, Stuart D.R. Galloway, Kevin D. Tipton and Oliver C. Witard

the 72-hour recovery period in any condition (Figure  5 ). Figure 5 —Performance on soccer-specific tasks measured over the entire 72-hour recovery period following an intense bout of eccentric exercise. Data are expressed as M  ± SEM. (a) Counter movement jump test; (b) Loughborough Soccer Passing