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Emanuele D’Artibale, Maheswaran Rohan and John B. Cronin

population of athletes; however, no study has elucidated the current level of risk in this sport discipline and factors related to crashes in circuit competitions. Given the aforementioned limitations, the purposes of this study were to (1) analyze and describe how the performance characteristics of the top

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Stephen Seiler

Almost half of the record 98 events being held at the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympic Games were either not held 20 years ago at Lillehammer or have been substantially modified. The Olympics as a global sports event are not stationary but must adapt and evolve in response to changing demands, just as the remarkable athletes who are competing do. While the Winter Olympics program has steadily grown since Chamonix in 1924, the rate of development has greatly accelerated in the last 20 years. Three factors seem to be instrumental. First, the Winter Olympics program has become more gender balanced. Female hockey teams are battling for gold, and this year women will compete in ski jumping for the first time. Most Winter Olympics sports have equal numbers of events for men and women today, although female participation still lags somewhat behind. Second, many traditional events have been modified by sport-governing bodies toward a more “TV friendly” format. Time-trial starts have been replaced by mass or group starts. “Sprint” and team events have been added to spice up traditional sports like cross-country skiing and speed skating. Finally “extreme” sports like half-pipe and ski-cross have crossed over from the X Games to the Olympics, with some arguing that the Olympics need these popular sports more than the X Games sports need the Olympics. All of these changes create new research questions for sport scientists who are also willing to adapt and evolve.

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Shyh-Chour Huang

This paper presents a description of a general -purpose nonlinear model of the human body. The model is developed to simulate human response to high force and high acceleration as typically experienced in vehicle accidents. The model is composed of connected bodies of segments representing the torso and limbs of the human frame. Nonlinear springs and dampers are used at the connection joints to represent human anatomical characteristics and limits imposed by muscles, ligaments, and soft tissue. The governing dynamical equations are developed using Kane's equations (Kane <&: Levin-son, 1985) and multibody dynamics analysis procedures developed by Huston et al. (1974, 1975, 1978). These equations and procedures form the basis for the algorithms of a computer code. The equations are solved numerically using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta integrator. The results of several accident simulations are also presented.

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Liam Kennedy, Derek Silva, Madelaine Coelho and William Cipolli III

sixteen people—including Broncos’ players and staff—and injuring thirteen more ( CBC News, 2018 ). The crash inspired widespread public reaction, including the establishment of a GoFundMe crowdfunding campaign that reached $15,172,300—the largest GoFundMe campaign in Canadian history ( Canadian Press

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Paolo Menaspà, Chris R. Abbiss and David T. Martin

This investigation describes the sprint performances of the highest internationally ranked professional male road sprint cyclist during the 2008–2011 Grand Tours. Sprint stages were classified as won, lost, or dropped from the front bunch before the sprint. Thirty-one stages were video-analyzed for average speed of the last km, sprint duration, position in the bunch, and number of teammates at 60, 30, and 15 s remaining. Race distance, total elevation gain (TEG), and average speed of 45 stages were determined. Head-to-head performances against the 2nd–5th most successful professional sprint cyclists were also reviewed. In the 52 Grand Tour sprint stages the subject started, he won 30 (58%), lost 15 (29%), was dropped in 6 (12%), and had 1 crash. Position in the bunch was closer to the front and the number of team members was significantly higher in won than in lost at 60, 30, and 15 s remaining (P < .05). The sprint duration was not different between won and lost (11.3 ± 1.7 and 10.4 ± 3.2 s). TEG was significantly higher in dropped (1089 ± 465 m) than in won and lost (574 ± 394 and 601 ± 423 m, P < .05). The ability to finish the race with the front bunch was lower (77%) than that of other successful sprinters (89%). However, the subject was highly successful, winning over 60% of contested stages, while his competitors won less than 15%. This investigation explores methodology that can be used to describe important aspects of road sprint cycling and supports the concept that tactical aspects of sprinting can relate to performance outcomes.

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Orland Hoeber, Ryan Snelgrove, Larena Hoeber and Laura Wood

research questions. To illustrate using our example, we could not have anticipated which riders would crash or how the stakeholders would react to such crashes, even though this is a common incident in professional cycling. However, having noticed large increases in the volume of tweets during the race led

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Brody J. Ruihley, Jason Simmons, Andrew C. Billings and Rich Calabrese

represents the top-rated program on five major networks ( Nielsen Sports, 2018 ; Norman, 2018 ). The error was, instead, a technical issue causing ESPN’s fantasy-football website and mobile application (app) to crash. This Web- and app-based crash kept fantasy-sport participants from accessing their league

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Stephen Harvey, Chris Rissel and Mirjam Pijnappels

overall benefits and risks associated with cycling continuing into older age. Benefits as noted earlier include increased muscle strength, balance, and confidence in maintaining balance. Risks can include crashes and increased exposure to air pollutants ( Gotschi, Garrard, & Giles Corti, 2016 ). Celis

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Nicole L. Hoffman, Hannes Devos and Julianne D. Schmidt

motor vehicle crashes in the past 5 years, but he reported having one speeding violation in the month prior to testing. On March 29, 2016 (∼18 months since control testing) he sustained a concussion while skateboarding on campus without a helmet. The patient was going up a steep sidewalk ramp, lost

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Kristi Sweeney

intercollegiate athletics, Griffith skillfully argued that higher education was not just a “thinking agency” but a “socializing” one (p. 111). The Carnegie Report’s abysmal timing was perhaps its greatest hindrance, coinciding with the Great Crash of the New York Stock Exchange in 1929, and this is where Chapter