. The most commonly used biomarker to indirectly assess potential muscle damage in team sports is creatine kinase (CK). 7 – 9 Recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses in both soccer 9 and contact codes of football 8 have shown that CK levels are significantly elevated anywhere from immediately up
Gerard E. McMahon, Lee-Ann Sharp, and Rodney A. Kennedy
Nicholas D. Luden, Michael J. Saunders, and M. Kent Todd
The authors investigated the effects of postexercise carbohydrate-protein-anti-oxidant (CHO+P+A) ingestion on plasma creatine kinase (CK), muscle soreness, and subsequent cross-country race performance. Twenty-three runners consumed 10 mL/kg body weight of CHO or CHO+P+A beverage immediately after each training session for 6 d before a cross-country race. After a 21-d washout period, subjects repeated the protocol with the alternate beverage. Post intervention CK (223.21 ± 160.71 U/L; 307.3 ± 312.9 U/L) and soreness (medians = 1.0, 2.0) were significantly lower after CHO+P+A intervention than after CHO, despite no differences in baseline measures. There were no overall differences in running performance after CHO and CHO+P+A interventions. There were, however, significant correlations between treatment differences and running mileage, with higher mileage runners having trends toward improved attenuations in CK and race performance after CHO+P+A intervention than lower mileage runners. We conclude that muscle damage incurred during training was attenuated with postexercise CHO+P+A ingestion, which could lead to performance improvements in high-mileage runners.
Lauri M. Webber, William C. Byrnes, Thomas W. Rowland, and Vicky L. Foster
Although delayed onset muscle soreness and increased serum creatine kinase activity (SCKA) following unaccustomed exercise is common in adults, little is known concerning these responses in children. The perception of muscle soreness and SCKA in children (n = 16) (M age = 10.4±.30 yr) was compared to a control group of adults (n = 15) (M age = 27.1±.87 yr) following a single bout of downhill running (30 min − 10% grade). Preexercise SCKA was not significantly different between the children (91.7±8.5 μmol•L−1•min−1) and the adults (77.1±5.9 μmol•L−1•min−1). The difference in SCKA (pre to 24 hours post) was significantly less (p<.01) for the children (68.6±16.2 μmol•L−1•min−1) than for the adults (188.7±36.8 μmol•L−1•min−1). When the groups were adjusted for weight differences, SCKA was not significantly different between the adults and the children. Regardless of age, males demonstrated a significantly greater increase in SCKA postexercise when compared to females. Soreness ratings (verbally anchored scale from 1 to 10) 24 hours following the downhill run were not significantly different between the children (3.8±.6) and the adults (4.5±.7). Following an eccentrically biased exercise task, children exhibited less of a SCKA response compared to adults that is related to body weight.
Mary P. Miles, Erin E. Walker, Stephen B. Conant, Shelly P. Hogan, and Jessy R. Kidd
Attenuation of exercise-induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) responses by carbohydrate (CHO) has been demonstrated in studies comparing controlled doses (≥ 0.9 g · kg−1 · h−1) to placebo, but not in studies of voluntary intake. This study sought to determine if attenuation of the IL-6 response during a 32.2-km mountain trail race occurs for high compared to low ad libitum CHO intakes. IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and creatine kinase activity (CK) were analyzed from blood samples collected 12 h pre-, 0, 4, and 24 h post-race. Subjects were grouped into low (n = 14, 0.4 ± 0.1 g · kg−1· h−1) and high (n = 18, 0.8 ± 0.2 g · kg−1 · h−1) CHO intake groups. IL-6 0 h post-race (P < 0.05) was higher in the low (40.2 ± 22.7 pg · mL−1) compared to the high CHO group (32.7 ± 22.1 pg · mL−1). CRP and CK both increased post-race, but no differences were observed between groups. Attenuation of exercise-induced IL-6 is apparent across a range of CHO intakes.
Kelley D. Henderson, Sarah A. Manspeaker, and Zevon Stubblefield
contents could include myoglobin, calcium, creatine kinase, as well as other minerals and acids. 2 With this release of muscle cell contents, the organ systems of the body, specifically the kidneys, are taxed and at risk of failure, with potential sequelae of death. 3 The development of ER typically
Adam D. Osmond, Dean J. Directo, Marcus L. Elam, Gabriela Juache, Vince C. Kreipke, Desiree E. Saralegui, Robert Wildman, Michael Wong, and Edward Jo
were encouraged to give maximum effort throughout the set. Mean average power (MAP) and mean peak power (MPP) were deduced from transducer time and displacement data using data acquisition software interfaced to the device. Biomarkers of Muscle Damage Plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity was determined
Mathieu Lacome, Christopher Carling, Jean-Philippe Hager, Gerard Dine, and Julien Piscione
combative and HS intermittent nature of the sport results in considerable muscle damage. 8 Research has demonstrated elevated blood creatine kinase concentrations [CK] b for 48 hours before returning to baseline levels at 70 hours postmatch. 9 These elevated concentrations are principally associated with
Jordan Bettleyon and Thomas W. Kaminski
unique in the metabolic demands placed on the athletes’ bodies; this is where the timing of LLLT is controversial. Timing of this modality can alter chemical mediators of the inflammatory process and inhibit damaging enzymes, more specifically, blood lactate (BL) and creatine kinase (CK). During soccer
Amanda L. Zaleski, Linda S. Pescatello, Kevin D. Ballard, Gregory A. Panza, William Adams, Yuri Hosokawa, Paul D. Thompson, and Beth A. Taylor
athletes participating in long course endurance events such as a marathon, 13 establishing their efficacy for use is an important and valuable investigation. Consequently, this investigation sought to examine the influence of wearing compression socks during a marathon run on creatine kinase (CK; a marker
Zeynep Hazar Kanik, Seyit Citaker, Canan Yilmaz Demirtas, Neslihan Celik Bukan, Bulent Celik, and Gurkan Gunaydin
, maximal isometric quadriceps strength, vertical jump height, and blood analyses (creatine kinase [CK], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], myoglobin, and C-reactive protein). Power analysis indicated that the required sample size to evaluate a time × group interaction (with 80% of statistical power and P < .05