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Akira Asada, Yuhei Inoue, and Yonghwan Chang

the NFL handled the controversy could have influenced the league’s credibility, which, in turn, could have determined how effectively the league communicated with the public ( Kelman, 1961 ; McCracken, 1989 ). As such, the controversy may have had various direct and indirect effects on the NFL and

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Nilo C. Ramos and Bryan A. McCullick

The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary students’ perceptions of PE teacher credibility. Eight high- and low-skilled students from grades 3 and 5 were selected from a school employing a PE teacher holding a National Board Certification. Data were collected in the school setting utilizing observations, field notes, an open-ended questionnaire, student drawings, a photo elicitation activity, and group and individual interviews. Data were analyzed inductively and deductively using Miles and Huberman’s (1994) four-stage analysis in relation to source credibility theory (Hovland, Janis, & Kelley, 1953). Data trustworthiness was ensured through a peer debriefer, reflexivity journal/audit trail and triangulation. In the eyes of the students, a credible PE teacher “Looks Like One,” “Practices What She Preaches,” and “Is an ‘Awesome’ Pedagogue.” Implications for both current PE teachers and PETE programs concerned with teacher effectiveness and, consequently, student learning are discussed.

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Sean R. Sadri

The current study examined how article source, medium, and fan identification can all affect the credibility of sports articles. An online experiment was conducted, and participants read an article that was indicated to have originated from a mainstream sports Web site, a sports blog, a social-networking site, or a wire service. Analysis revealed that fan-identification level was an important factor in credibility ratings in which highly identified fans found sports articles to be significantly more credible than fans with low identification. Highly identified fans also rated the article as equally credible on all 3 Web sites. However, low-identification fans rated the mainstream sports Web site article as significantly more credible than the other 2. Article medium was not shown to have a significant influence on perceived credibility for either identification group. The implications of fan-identification level on the discrepancies in ratings of perceived credibility are explored.

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Dustin A. Hahn and R. Glenn Cummins

Studies examining factors that influence credibility perceptions have demonstrated the importance of a source’s gender and attractiveness. However, scholars have only begun to extend these findings to credibility in the context of mediated sports. This experiment tested the relationship that gender and attractiveness have with credibility and whether this varies as a function of the gender of the athlete in a given story. Results indicate that reporters’ gender and attractiveness and athlete gender affect perceptions of credibility such that when reporters are of the opposite gender of an athlete, they are perceived as most credible when they are less attractive. Results also reveal a gender bias such that reporters are perceived as most credible when covering male athletes, regardless of reporter gender. Explanations are offered for these findings, in addition to a discussion of the implications for news practitioners.

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Joseph P. Mazer, Katie Barnes, Alexia Grevious, and Caroline Boger

Team sports have become a vital informal learning setting in which athletes are taught, motivated, and mentored by their coaches. This experimental study examined the effects of coach verbal aggression on athlete motivation and perceptions of coach credibility. Results revealed that athletes exposed to a verbally aggressive coach were significantly less motivated and perceived the coach as less credible than athletes who were exposed to a coach who used an affirming style. With respect to credibility, athletes perceived a verbally aggressive coach as significantly less competent, trustworthy, and caring than a coach who used an affirming style. Implications and areas for future research are discussed. Case-study questions are presented for discussion by scholars and students.

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Steve Swanson and Aubrey Kent

The way in which leaders in sport organizations are evaluated by their employees is dependent upon perceived levels of credibility and implicit theories of leadership. Leader knowledge and expertise play significant roles in this process, yet both have been treated as comprehensive constructs irrespective of specific knowledge domains. Drawing from the education literature, this research looks to disentangle the global perspective used by the credibility and prototypicality literatures. It is proposed that employees in sport organizations expect managers to possess domain-specific expertise which is separate from the functional area requirement. Two different samples including professional sport employees and sport management students were used, with confirmatory factor and conjoint analyses used to test the research hypotheses. The results support the notion that distinct psychological processes exist within sport organizations, and that sport domain knowledge and expertise are distinct constructs which play important roles in the perception of leaders within this context.

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Younghan Lee and Jakeun Koo

The current study used a 2 × 2 analysis to explore the effect of athlete endorser-product congruence and endorser credibility on consumer responses, such as attitude toward the advertisement, attitude toward the brand, and purchase intention. Real people and actual brands were used as stimuli to enhance external validity and generalizability. Research results confirmed the interaction effects between athlete endorser-product congruence and endorser credibility on three specific consumer responses. The research further examined and identified the indirect path from attitude toward the advertisement and purchase intention, mediated by attitude toward the brand. The findings from the research fill gaps in the literature and extend the body of knowledge in endorsement studies in general and sport celebrity-endorsement studies in particular.

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Josh Compton and Jordan Compton

Open letters offer a unique focus for rhetorical analysis in sport communication, forming a message that is both interpersonal (the attempt to reflect dialogue through a letter writer and its recipients) and public (the “open” part of the open letter). The National Football League (NFL) attempted image repair when it used open letters to respond to accusations that it was not doing enough to protect athletes against devastating effects of concussions. Through the use of Benoit’s theory of image repair, the authors found that Commissioner Goodell’s open letters relied on 2 main image-repair strategies: reducing offensiveness and corrective action. They consider the implications of these rhetorical choices for the complicated merging areas of sport, communication, and health in the NFL’s open letters.

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Cecilia Stenling and Michael Sam

). Frame Credibility: Empirical Credibility, Frame Consistency, and Credibility of the Claims-Maker The effectiveness of a claim also varies with its credibility. Credibility for a message builds on, first, a claim’s empirical credibility , achieved when the empirical referents are perceived by targets to

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Sebastian Sitko, Rafel Cirer-Sastre, Francisco Corbi, and Isaac López-Laval

.38 .04  5-min relative heart rate (%HR max ) 100 (5) −0.50 0.27 −1.03 to 0.02 .09  Mean cadence, rpm 95 (9) 0.34 0.14 0.06 to 0.62 .13  5-min RPE, AU 20 (0) −0.51 2.87 −5.87 to 5.29 .02 Abbreviations: AU, arbitrary units; CI, credibility interval; HR, heart rate; HR max , maximal heart rate; RPE, rating