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Cathy McKay, Jung Yeon Park, and Martin Block

a detailed description of Allport’s ( 1954 ) contact theory, including the necessary components of contact theory. This study used a newly created fidelity of implementation instrument (fidelity criteria) to measure a single construct (contact theory) with the four criteria (or indicators), seeking

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Michelle R. Zitomer and Donna Goodwin

Qualitative inquiry is increasingly being used in adapted physical activity research, which raises questions about how to best evaluate its quality. This article aims to clarify the distinction between quality criteria (the what) and strategies (the how) in qualitative inquiry. An electronic keyword search was used to identify articles pertaining to quality evaluation published between 1995 and 2012 (n = 204). A five phase systematic review resulted in the identification of 56 articles for detailed review. Data extraction tables were generated and analyzed for commonalities in terminology and meanings. Six flexible criteria for gauging quality were formulated: reflexivity, credibility, resonance, significant contribution, ethics, and coherence. Strategies for achieving the established criteria were also identified. It is suggested that researchers indicate the paradigm under which they are working and guidelines by which they would like readers to evaluate their work as well as what criteria can be absent without affecting the research value.

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Renee E. Magnan, Bethany M. Kwan, Joseph T. Ciccolo, Burke Gurney, Christine M. Mermier, and Angela D. Bryan

Background:

Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), an assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness, is regularly used as the primary outcome in exercise interventions. Many criteria have been suggested for validating such tests—most commonly, a plateau in oxygen consumption. The current study investigated the proportion of inactive individuals who reached a plateau in oxygen uptake and who achieved a valid test as assessed by secondary criteria (RERmax ≥ 1.1; RPEmax ≥ 18; age predicted HRmax ±10bpm), and the correlates of a successful plateau or achievement of secondary criteria during a VO2max session.

Methods:

Participants (n = 240) were inactive individuals who completed VO2max assessments using an incremental treadmill test. We explored physical, behavioral, and motivational factors as predictors of meeting criteria for meeting a valid test.

Results:

Approximately 59% of the sample achieved plateau using absolute (increase of VO2 of 150ml O2 or less) and 37% achieved plateau using relative (increase of VO2 of 1.5ml/kg O2 or less) criteria. Being male, having a higher BMI, a greater waist-to-hip ratio, and increased self-efficacy were associated with lower odds of achieving an absolute plateau, whereas none of these factors predicted odds of achieving relative plateau.

Conclusion:

Findings raise questions about the validity of commonly used criteria with less active populations.

Open access

Christie Powell, Jody Jensen, and Samantha Johnson

causes an increase in injury risk and potential long-term health consequences, including burnout, growth plate injuries, and osteoarthritis. 7 Following an injury, identifying functional performance deficits, defined by return-to-sport criteria, minimizes injury risk factors and provides athletes with

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Katie J. Thralls and Susan S. Levy

function were developed ( Rikli & Jones, 2013 ). However, the association between these criteria for independence and physical activity is unknown. The objective of the current study was to examine the association between meeting published aerobic and resistance PAGA for older adults and meeting SFT

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Eric P. Scibek, Matthew F. Moran, and Susan L. Edmond

. 6 While observing this movement, which typically takes no more than 5 to 7 seconds to perform, the rater applies stringent scoring criteria (Table  1 ) to grade specific movement components. 6 , 7 The DS is scored as either 3—indicating successful completion; 2—indicating successful completion

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Erik A. Wikstrom, Cole Mueller, and Mary Spencer Cain

practitioner experience. RTS decisions can also be influenced by stakeholders (eg, patients, parents, and coaches) pushing RTS expediency. Thus, unique practitioner experiences and job setting environments facilitate inconsistent RTS decisions for LAS. The development of evidence-based criteria that could

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Michelle A. Sandrey

Key Points ▸ Inconsistent evidence and findings do not support a specific criterion to define the angle measurements of FHP and RSP. This also supports the need for further research in this area. ▸ There is low evidence for which criteria angle measurements (reference standard) to use to define FHP

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Deborah Kendzierski, R. Michael Furr Jr., and Jennifer Schiavoni

Three studies investigated the correlates of physical activity self-definitions among undergraduate exercisers and athletes, and examined the perceived criteria for defining oneself as a weightlifter, basketball player, and exerciser. Perceptions about behavior, motivation-related variables, and social world variables showed consistent relationships with self-definition; correlations between self-definition and enjoyment varied according to activity. Although affective criteria were mentioned by a sizable number of those with and without physical activity self-definitions, participants cited far more behavioral than affective criteria. Other frequently mentioned criteria were also identified. Implications for self-inference are discussed and a preliminary model of physical activity self-definition is presented.

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Daniel J. Daly and Yves Vanlandewijck

In disability swimming, a functional classification system is used in which swimmers with varying impairments compete against each other in one of 10 classes. In classification research, the criterion most often used to judge validity (fairness) is statistical difference in race performance between adjacent classes. Additional criteria are proposed here. First, the world-record swimming speed should decrease in a predictable manner with decreasing functional class. Second, classes should be clearly discriminated by race performances. To aid in evaluating these criteria, a comparison of the competitiveness (depth of the field) of the classes is made. The criteria were not strictly met in all classes. However, the sprint freestyle events approached fairness, especially for men. The exceptions were more due to a lack of maturity of the sport than to fundamental unfairness. Because of the more complex nature of breaststroke, more problems were observed related to classification fairness in this event.