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Seihati A. Shiroma, Ursula F. Julio and Emerson Franchini

, prescribe, and monitor MAP in judo athletes. Therefore, this study analyzed the criterion validity, reliability, and usefulness of the physiological, perceptive, and mechanical measurements obtained in the UK test . The hypothesis of the study was that physiological and mechanical responses for laboratory

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Katie Weatherson, Lira Yun, Kelly Wunderlich, Eli Puterman and Guy Faulkner

. The first objective of this study was to examine compliance (response vs nonresponse) to EMA prompts. The second objective was to explore demographic and temporal factors influencing EMA compliance. The third objective was to assess the criterion validity of EMA-reported position by comparing to the

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Ching-Yi Wang, Ming-Hsia Hu, Hui-Ya Chen and Ren-Hau Li

To determine the test–retest reliability and criterion validity of self-reported function in mobility and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in older adults, a convenience sample of 70 subjects (72.9 ± 6.6 yr, 34 male) was split into able and disabled groups based on baseline assessment and into consistently able, consistently disabled, and inconsistent based on repeat assessments over 2 weeks. The criterion validities of the self-reported measures of mobility domain and IADL-physical subdomain were assessed with concurrent baseline measures of 4 mobility performances, and that of the self-reported measure of IADL-cognitive subdomain, with the Mini-Mental State Examination. Test–retest reliability was moderate for the mobility, IADL-physical, and IADL-cognitive subdomains (κ = .51–.66). Those who reported being able at baseline also performed better on physical- and cognitive-performance tests. Those with variable performance between test occasions tended to report inconsistently on repeat measures in mobility and IADL-cognitive, suggesting fluctuations in physical and cognitive performance.

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James Onate, Nelson Cortes, Cailee Welch and Bonnie Van Lunen

Context:

A clinical assessment tool that would allow for efficient large-group screening is needed to identify individuals potentially at risk for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury.

Objective:

To assess the criterion validity of a jumplanding assessment tool compared with 3-dimensional (3D) motion analysis and evaluate interrater reliability across an expert vs novice rater using the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS).

Design:

Validity protocol.

Setting:

Controlled, laboratory.

Participants:

Nineteen female (age 19.58 ± .84 y, height 1.67 ± .05 m, mass 63.66 ± 10.11 kg) college soccer athletes volunteered.

Main Outcome Measurement:

Interrater reliability between expert rater (5 y LESS experience) vs novice rater (no LESS experience). LESS scores across 13 items and total score. 3D lower extremity kinematics were reduced to dichotomous values to match LESS items.

Interventions:

Participants performed drop-box landings from a 30-cm height with standard video-camera and 3D kinematic assessment.

Results:

Intrarater item reliability, assessed by kappa correlation, between novice and experienced LESS raters ranged from moderate to excellent (κ = .459–.875). Overall LESS score, assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient, was excellent (ICC2,1 = .835, P < .001). Statistically significant phi correlation (P < .05) was found between rater and 3D scores for knee-valgus range of motion; however, percent agreement between expert rater and 3D scores revealed excellent agreement (range of 84–100%) for ankle flexion at initial contact, knee-flexion range of motion, trunk flexion at maximum knee flexion, and foot position at initial contact for both external and internal rotation of tibia. Moderate agreement was found between rater and 3D scores for trunk flexion at initial contact, stance width less than shoulder width, knee valgus at initial contact, and knee-valgus range of motion.

Conclusions:

Our findings support moderate to excellent validity and excellent expert vs novice interrater reliability of the LESS to accurately assess 3D kinematic motion patterns. Future research should evaluate the efficacy of the LESS to assess individuals at risk for ACL injury.

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Miguel A. de la Cámara, Sara Higueras-Fresnillo, Verónica Cabanas-Sánchez, Kabir P. Sadarangani, David Martinez-Gomez and Óscar L. Veiga

Background: To assess the validity of the single question to determine sedentary behavior (SB) by using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in older adults. Methods: The sample included 163 participants (96 women) aged 65–92 years. Self-reported SB was obtained from the GPAQ. Objectively measured SB was assessed using the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity. Participants wore the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity continuously during 2 consecutive days while following their daily routine. The relative validity was assessed using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient (ρ), and the agreement was examined using mean bias and 95% limit of agreement with the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity as reference. Results: The results showed small correlations (ρ = .291, P < .001) between the SB from the GPAQ and the objective measures, and ranged from ρ = .217 to ρ = .491 depending on the potential moderator. Similarly, the GPAQ underestimates the SB for approximately 2 hours per day in older adults (limit of agreement = −7.3 to 3.4 h/d). Conclusion: The GPAQ may not be the most suitable questionnaire for measuring SB in this population and should be used with caution because those studies that use this questionnaire in older adults may have an inaccurate measurement of SB levels.

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Darcy M. Brown, Dan B. Dwyer, Samuel J. Robertson and Paul B. Gastin

The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a global positioning system (GPS) tracking system to estimate energy expenditure (EE) during exercise and field-sport locomotor movements. Twenty-seven participants each completed a 90-min exercise session on an outdoor synthetic futsal pitch. During the exercise session, they wore a 5-Hz GPS unit interpolated to 15 Hz and a portable gas analyzer that acted as the criterion measure of EE. The exercise session was composed of alternating 5-minute exercise bouts of randomized walking, jogging, running, or a field-sport circuit (×3) followed by 10 min of recovery. One-way analysis of variance showed significant (P < .01) and very large underestimations between GPS metabolic power– derived EE and oxygen-consumption (VO2) -derived EE for all field-sport circuits (% difference ≈ –44%). No differences in EE were observed for the jog (7.8%) and run (4.8%), whereas very large overestimations were found for the walk (43.0%). The GPS metabolic power EE over the entire 90-min session was significantly lower (P < .01) than the VO2 EE, resulting in a moderate underestimation overall (–19%). The results of this study suggest that a GPS tracking system using the metabolic power model of EE does not accurately estimate EE in field-sport movements or over an exercise session consisting of mixed locomotor activities interspersed with recovery periods; however, is it able to provide a reasonably accurate estimation of EE during continuous jogging and running.

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Grant R. Tomkinson, Justin J. Lang, Joel Blanchard, Luc A. Léger and Mark S. Tremblay

stage, the required running speed increases, until the child can no longer run the 20-m distance in time with the audio signal (on 2 consecutive occasions) or when the child stops due to volitional fatigue. The test has moderate criterion validity against gas-analyzed peak V ˙ O 2 (mL/kg/min) (see

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Jing Dong Liu and Pak-Kwong Chung

through various techniques, such as a cross-validation approach ( Boiché & Stephan, 2014 ; Haerens et al., 2010 ; Vansteenkiste et al., 2009 ); however, criterion validity ( Hair, Black, Babin, & Anderson, 2010 ) has been largely ignored. Internal validity could be used in support of the stability of

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Matthieu Dagenais, Nancy M. Salbach, Dina Brooks and Kelly K. O’Brien

criterion validity of the Fitbit Zip ® for its ability to measure the (1) number of steps taken and (2) distance walked during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT; objective 1a) and incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT; objective 1b) at 3 walking speeds among adults living with HIV. Our secondary objective was to

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Andreas Heissel, Anou Pietrek, Michael A. Rapp, Stephan Heinzel and Geoffrey Williams

validity were analyzed. Factorial validity investigates the extent to which the hypothetical underlying structure of a scale can be replicated by the data and is preceded via confirmatory factor analysis in the present inquiry. Criterion validity examines the practical applicability of the questionnaire (e