Context: Clinicians require portable, valid, and cost-effective methods to monitor knee joint-position-sense (JPS) ability. Objective: To examine the criterion-related validity of image-capture JPS measures against an isokinetic-dynamometer (IKD) procedure. Design: Random crossover design providing a comparison of knee JPS measures from image capture and IKD procedures. Participants: 10 healthy participants, 5 female, age 28.0 ± 13.29 y, mass 60.3 ± 9.02 kg, height 1.65 ± 0.07 m, and 5 male, 29.6 ± 10.74 y, mass 73.6 ± 5.86 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.07 m. Main Outcome Measures: The dependent variables were absolute error scores (AES) provided by 2 knee directions (flexion and extension). The independent variables were the method (image capture and IKD). Results: There was no significant difference between clinical and IKD AED into knee-extension data (P = .263, r = 0.55). There was a significant difference between clinical and IKD AES into knee-flexion data (P = .016, r =.70). Conclusions: Analysis of photographic images to assess JPS measurements using knee flexion is valid against IKD techniques. However, photo-analysis measurements provided a lower error score using knee-extension data and thus may provide an optimal environment to produce maximal knee JPS acuity. Therefore, clinicians do not need expensive equipment to collect representative JPS ability.
Nicola Relph and Lee Herrington
Jorge R. Fernandez-Santos, Jonatan R. Ruiz, Jose Luis Gonzalez-Montesinos and Jose Castro-Piñero
The aim of this study was to analyze the reliability and the validity of the handgrip, basketball throw and pushups tests in children aged 6–12 years. One hundred and eighty healthy children (82 girls) agreed to participate in this study. All the upper body muscular fitness tests were performed twice (7 days apart) whereas the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press test was performed 2 days after the first session of testing. All the tests showed a high reproducibility (ICC > 0.9) except the push-ups test (intertrial difference = 0.77 ± 2.38, p < .001 and the percentage error = 9%). The handgrip test showed the highest association with 1RM bench press test (r = .79, p < .01; R 2 = .621). In conclusion the handgrip and basketball throw tests are shown as reliable and valid tests to assess upper body muscular strength in children. More studies are needed to assess the validity and the reliability of the upper body muscular endurance tests in children.
Jason S. Scibek and Christopher R. Carcia
The purpose of our study was to establish criterion-related validity and repeatability of a shoulder biomechanics testing protocol involving an electromagnetic tracking system (Flock of Birds [FoB]). Eleven subjects completed humeral elevation tasks in the sagittal, scapular, and frontal planes on two occasions. Shoulder kinematics were assessed with a digital inclinometer and the FoB. Intrasession and intersession repeatability for orthopedic angles, and humeral and scapular kinematics ranged from moderate to excellent. Correlation analyses revealed strong relationships between inclinometer and FoB measures of humeral motion, yet considerable mean differences were noted between the measurement devices. Our results validate use of the FoB for measuring humeral kinematics and establish our testing protocol as reliable. We must continue to consider factors that can impact system accuracy and the effects they may have on kinematic descriptions and how data are reported.
Terry M. Libkuman, Kevin G. Love and Paul D. Donn
Using a content validity approach, including job analysis, a model was developed for the selection and appraisal of college football players. Evaluation instruments were developed for offensive lineman, quarterback, running back, receiver, defensive lineman, linebacker, and defensive secondary. Criterion related validity studies were then conducted by sending the evaluation instruments to a nation-wide sample of college football coaches who evaluated players at each position. Criterion data (e.g., passing and rushing performance statistics) were collected on the evaluated players. Multiple linear regression analyses conducted by position revealed numerous significant relationships between the predictor variables and the criterion measures. The usefulness of the evaluation instruments was enhanced by developing a simple and cost effective model that generated performance predictions for each position. Strengths and weaknesses of the present system were discussed as well as the role that sport management may play in such an endeavor.
David Alexander Leaf and Holden MacRae
The purpose of this study was to examine the criterion-related validity of two indirect measures of energy expenditure (EE): American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) predictive equations, and estimated EE based on the Caltrac accelerometer. These measures were compared in 20 community-dwelling older men and women (mean age 71 years). The strength of the relationships among major determinants of EE during self-selected speeds of treadmill and outdoor walking was also examined. EE measured by respiratory gas analysis during an exercise stress test was highly correlated with ACSM predictive equations and poorly correlated with Caltrac. Multivariate regression equations were established to evaluate the ability of independent variables—body weight and height, age, and preferred treadmill walking speed—to predict EE (dependent variable). It was concluded that the ACSM predictive equations are suitable for use in elderly individuals, and that the apparent differences in the relationships between treadmill and outdoor walking speeds on EE deserve further investigation.
Koen A.P.M. Lemmink, Han C.G. Kemper, Mathieu H.G. de Greef, Piet Rispens and Martin Stevens
This article focuses on the validity of the circumduction test for measuring shoulder flexibility in older adults. Participants included 137 community-dwelling older adults. Equipment consisted of a cord with a fixed handle on one end and a sliding handle on the other. The sliding handle was adjusted so that the cord length between the 2 handles equaled the participant’s shoulder width. Holding the 2 handles, the participant must pass the cord from the front of the body over the head and as far back as possible with extended arms. The score is the fanning-out angle. Forward flexion, abduction, horizontal retroflexion, and outward rotation were also measured. The test and criterion measurements were administered within 1 wk. The criterion-related validity of the circumduction test as a measure of forward flexion and horizontal retroflexion received support from moderate correlations. Its use as a measure of abduction and outward rotation, however, received no support from the data.
Harold A. Riemer and Packianathan Chelladurai
The development of the l5-dimension, 56-item Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire (ASQ) was based on Chelladurai and Riemer’s (1997) classification of facets of athlete satisfaction. Qualitative procedures included item generation, expert judgment, and independent placement of items in relevant facets. Quantitative procedures, item-to-total correlations, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, involving 172 undergraduate students and 614 Canadian university athletes, confirmed the construct validity of the scale. Correlations between the ASQ’s subscales and scales of commitment and negative affectivity provided evidence of criterion-related validity. Reliability estimates (Cronbach’s alpha) ranged from .78 to .95. The 15 facets of ASQ encompassed salient aspects of athletic participation, performance (both individual and team), leadership, the team, the organization, and the athlete.
Martin Stevens, Anita Bakker-van Dijk, Mathieu H.G. de Greef, Koen A.P.M. Lemmink and Piet Rispens
The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a Dutch translation of a questionnaire to measure self-efficacy in leisure-time physical activity. The questionnaire consisted of three subscales measuring three dimensions of self-efficacy. It was completed by 461 participants, 55–65 years old. Fifty-nine participants took part in a test-retest study. Factor analysis and correlations between the sum-scores of the 3 scales confirmed that each scale measures a different dimension of self-efficacy. The criterion-related validity of 2 of the scales was found to be moderate. All 3 scales had a satisfactory internal consistency, indicating that they are reliable. Stability was assessed with a test-retest procedure, which yielded satisfactory results for 2 of the 3 scales. The results revealed an improvement in self-efficacy for 2 of the scales over a 4-week time period. When outliers were excluded, satisfactory values were obtained for intraclass correlation coefficients between the first and second measurements.
Luca Ruggiero, Susan Dewhurst and Theodoros M. Bampouras
Leg stiffness is an important performance determinant in several sporting activities. This study evaluated the criterion-related validity and reliability of 2 field-based leg stiffness devices, Optojump Next® (Optojump) and Myotest Pro® (Myotest) in different testing approaches. Thirty-four males performed, on 2 separate sessions, 3 trials of 7 maximal hops, synchronously recorded from a force platform (FP), Optojump and Myotest. Validity (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, r; relative mean bias; 95% limits of agreement, 95%LoA) and reliability (coefficient of variation, CV; intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC; standard error of measurement, SEM) were calculated for first attempt, maximal attempt, and average across 3 trials. For all 3 methods, Optojump correlated highly to the FP (range r = .98–.99) with small bias (range 0.91–0.92, 95%LoA 0.86–0.98). Myotest demonstrated high correlation to FP (range r = .81–.86) with larger bias (range 1.92–1.93, 95%LoA 1.63–2.23). Optojump yielded a low CV (range 5.9% to 6.8%), high ICC (range 0.82–0.86), and SEM ranging 1.8–2.1 kN/m. Myotest had a larger CV (range 8.9% to 13.0%), moderate ICC (range 0.64–0.79), and SEM ranging from 6.3 to 8.9 kN/m. The findings present important information for these devices and support the use of a time-efficient single trial to assess leg stiffness in the field.
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