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Nick Wadsworth, Ben Paszkowec and Martin Eubank

particularly useful when individuals are experiencing a crisis or are making a transition. When supporting an individual through these transitions or critical moments, an existential practitioner will not focus on the use of techniques to reduce the symptoms associated with this difficult moment ( Corlett

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Chantal Amade-Escot

This article examines the critical didactic incidents (CDIs) method used by European researchers in didactics. Originally designed by Flanagan (1954) in psychology, the CDIs method is based on qualitative accounts and analysis of critical moments in the teaching process when content is brought into play. The article reviews the use of critical incidents in educational research and then focuses on the epistemological aspect of its recasting in didactics. Criteria and guidelines for using the method are described, as well as some tenets for interpretation. The description emphasizes the fact that the CDIs method is anchored in a concern for developing depth of understanding of a particular phenomenon: the dynamics of the implicit negotiations between teacher and students regarding content issues and the co-construction of meanings that undergirds classroom interactions.

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Jonathan Esteve-Lanao, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala, Anouar Dabab, Alberto Alcocer-Gamboa and Facundo Ahumada

The aim of this study was to describe the pacing distribution during 6 editions of the world cross-country championships.


Data from the 768 male runners participating from 2007 to 2013 were considered for this study. Blocks of 10 participants according to final position (eg, 1st to 10th, 11 to 20th, etc) were considered.


Taking data from all editions together, the effect of years was found to be significant (F 5,266 = 3078.69, P < .001, ω2 = 0.31), as well as the effect of blocks of runners by final position (F 4,266 = 957.62, P < .001, ω2 = 0.08). A significant general decrease in speed by lap was also found (F 5,1330 = 2344.02, P < .001, ω2 = 0.29). Post hoc analyses were conducted for every edition where several pacing patterns were found. All correlations between the lap times and the total time were significant. However, each lap might show different predicting capacity over the individual outcome.


Top athletes seem to display different strategies, which allow them to sustain an optimal speed and/or kick as needed during the critical moments and succeed. After the first group (block) of runners, subsequent blocks always displayed a positive pacing pattern (fast to slow speed). Consequently, a much more stable pacing pattern should be considered to maximize final position.


Top-10 finishers in the world cross-country championships tend to display a more even pace than the rest of the finishers, whose general behavior shows a positive (fast-to-slow) pattern.

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Nick Wadsworth

supervisor at the time ( Tod, 2007 ) but had also been strengthened through the clients I had worked with in professional football. These individuals would often experience multiple critical moments throughout their careers ( Nesti, Littlewood, O’Halloran, Eubank, & Richardson, 2012 ), which required a long

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Tom Mitchell, Adam Gledhill, Mark Nesti, Dave Richardson and Martin Littlewood

the sporting careers, Nesti et al. ( 2012 ) suggested that the term “critical moments” is also a pertinent term to consider. This describes the range of events experienced by professional footballers on a daily basis, and such moments may be perceived as positive or negative by the individual facing

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Amanda Ebert and Donna L. Goodwin

have to do; I just push the hard questions down. At times, reacting quickly was a job requirement, but not revisiting critical moments that caused discomfort left professionals with a progressive “icky feeling.” Jane admitted, “Sometimes at the end of the day I’m like, ‘Why did you do that!?’ But it

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Thomas A. Haugen, Felix Breitschädel and Stephen Seiler

covered by aerobic processes, anaerobic actions are required in critical moments to win duels, defend, or create goal scoring chances. 1 – 4 Numerous players have been analyzed according to physical performance parameters during match play. 2 , 4 Several studies suggest an effect of either competitive

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John Valentine

provide a clean feed of the broadcast. 83 BBG head Dr. Stewart warned CBC president Ouimet that the BBG would prosecute the CBC if it did not comply with the law. 84 An editorial in the Toronto Star called this “[o]ne of the critical moments in the history of Canadian television.” 85 Eleven days

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Matthew R. Hodler

-Ring Circus: Money, Power and Politics at the Olympic Games , ed. Alan Tomlinson and Garry Whannel (London: Pluto Press, 1984), 1–15; Michael R. Real, “Who Owns the Olympics? Political Economy and Critical Moments in the Modern Games” in The Olympics: A Critical Reader , ed. Vassil Girginov (London

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Johanna Belz, Jens Kleinert and Moritz Anderten

.1177/0145445503259394 Nesti , M. ( 2010 ). Psychology in football. Working with elite and professional players . Oxon, UK : Routledge . 10.4324/9780203874585 Nesti , M. , Littlewood , M. , O’Halloran , L. , Eubank , M. , & Richardson , D. ( 2012 ). Critical moments in elite premiership football: Who do you