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Shrehan Lynch and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

illustrate how a teacher educator of a sociocultural foundations course attempted to transform PTs’ perspectives and practices. Specifically, theoretical constructs including “critical consciousness,” “banking education,” and “problem-posing education” were drawn upon. The term critical consciousness or

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James Skinner and Allan Edwards

Although qualitative research approaches such as ethnography have been applied to the field of sport (e.g., Bricknell, 2001; Hughson and Hallinan, 2001) Sparkes (2003) has suggested that it was not until the late 1990s that sport researchers began to embrace ethnographic frameworks underpinned by critical and postmodern theories. As such, the value of these research designs has not been fully realized. The benefit for sport management researchers in applying critical and postmodern thought to ethnographic approaches is that it sharpens their critical consciousness. This article therefore develops an argument for applying critical and postmodern thought to ethnographic approaches to sport management research. In doing this we (a) provide a brief historical sketch of social science research paradigms; (b) outline the benefits of applying critical and postmodern thought to sport management ethnographic research; (c) present examples of current sport and sport management ethnographic research that applies critical and postmodern frameworks; and (d) provide insight into the concerns that sport management scholars should consider when applying ethnographic research designs that embrace the tenets of postmodernism. Through this discussion we conclude that, although ethnographic approaches inspired by critical and postmodern thought are not the panacea to solve all research problems, if applied correctly they can only further enhance out knowledge of the research issue under investigation.

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Ajhanai Channel Inez Newton

, and Education as Singer captures the shared experience of educators and administrators both assuming the intellectual curiosities and abilities of Black male athletes by setting low standards as well as educators assisting in the development of critical consciousness in Black male athletes. The co

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James E. Johnson

, J. , Giles , Jr. , D. , & Schmide , A. ( 1996 ). A practitioner’s guide to reflection in service-learning: Student voices & reflections . Nashville, TN : Vanderbilt University . Freire , P. ( 1973 ). Education for critical consciousness . New York, NY : Seabury . Fuller , R

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David Hortigüela-Alcalá, Antonio Calderón and Gustavo González-Calvo

dialogical approach creates an opportunity for them to improve their professional competence and to be better PE teachers ( Pascual, 2006 ). Shrehan and Curtner-Smith ( 2019 ) also advocated for theoretical dialogue as key to create a critical consciousness of preservice teachers around sociocultural issues

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Maureen Connolly and William J. Harvey

feelings and lived experiences of alienation from culture, language, and communication. In the archeology of consciousness, students and teachers focus on language use as the most accessible mirror of naïve, superstitious, or critical consciousness ( Finlay & Faith, 1987 , p. 65). The chief characteristic

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Kim Toffoletti, Catherine Palmer and Sumaya Samie

running, can contribute to de-colonization. Here, the authors bring an embodied dimension to the lived experience of de-colonization, tracing out the causes and consequences of the oppression of Canada’s First Nation peoples. For Indigenous people, “decolonization entails developing a critical

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Tarkington J. Newman, Fernando Santos, António Cardoso and Paulo Pereira

learners understand their own reality and place within the sociopolitical culture ( Kim, 2001 ), while critical pedagogy ( Freire, 1972 ) aims to empower learners to explore the discourse of their reality when developing a critical consciousness. Once critical consciousness has been developed, coaches can

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Emma Seal and Emma Sherry

to challenging power structure (see Chawansky, 2011 ; Forde & Frisby, 2015 ; Hayhurst, 2013 ). However, stakeholders are open to reflection and change, and engaging men in critical consciousness-raising are key ways this could evolve. Program Approach/Capacity Building The GET program is driven by

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Philippe Crisp

coaches as facilitators, that they should empower participants, and that practice should emphasize developmental outcomes) can be shaped into specific principles and recommended practices. Establish Common Ground Coaches need to focus on developing a critical consciousness that allows potential issues of