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M. Travis Byrd, Jonathan Robert Switalla, Joel E. Eastman, Brian J. Wallace, Jody L. Clasey, and Haley C. Bergstrom

The critical-power (CP) (and critical force) test of Monod and Scherrer involved dynamic, intermittent, static, and continuous muscle actions for isolated movements of synergic muscle groups including the forearm flexors, forearm extensors, and leg flexors. 1 This test involves local muscle work

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Charles F. Pugh, C. Martyn Beaven, Richard A. Ferguson, Matthew W. Driller, Craig D. Palmer, and Carl D. Paton

corresponding power output has been termed the critical power (CP, in Watts), while the finite work capacity and thus tolerance to exercise above CP can be defined as the “work-prime” (W′, in Joules). Together, the CP and W′ are parameters that describe the power–duration relationship of cycling performance

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Bettina Karsten, Jonathan Baker, Fernando Naclerio, Andreas Klose, Antonino Bianco, and Alfred Nimmerichter

Critical power (CP) is defined as the highest sustainable rate of aerobic metabolism without a continuous loss of homeostasis. 1 It separates power-output (PO) intensities, for which exercise tolerance is predictable (PO > CP), from those of longer sustainable durations (PO < CP). The second

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Taylor K. Dinyer, M. Travis Byrd, Ashley N. Vesotsky, Pasquale J. Succi, and Haley C. Bergstrom

The critical power (CP) model was originally developed as a 2-parameter linear model to examine the relationship between total work and time to exhaustion ( T lim ) for dynamic, continuous isometric, and intermittent isometric contractions of a muscle or local muscle group (less than one-third the

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Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M. Jones, and Mark Burnley

The critical power (CP) is mathematically defined as the power-asymptote of the hyperbolic relationship between power output and time-to-exhaustion. Physiologically, the CP represents the boundary between the steady-state and nonsteady state exercise intensity domains and therefore may provide a more meaningful index of performance than other well-known landmarks of aerobic fitness such as the lactate threshold and the maximal O2 uptake. Despite the potential importance to sports performance, the CP is often misinterpreted as a purely mathematical construct which lacks physiological meaning and only in recent years has this concept begun to emerge as valid and useful technique for monitoring endurance fitness. This commentary defines the basic principles of the CP concept, outlines its importance to high-intensity exercise performance, and provides an overview of the current methods available for its assessment. Interventions including training, pacing and prior exercise can be used to alter the parameters of the power-time relationship. A future challenge lies in optimizing such interventions in order to positively affect the parameters of the power-time relationship and thereby enhance sports performance in specific events.

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Samantha G. Fawkner and Neil Armstrong

The purpose of this study was to examine methods of assessing Critical Power (CP) with children. Eight boys and 9 girls (10.3 – 0.4 yrs) completed 3 cycle tests in one day, each at a different constant power output predicted to induce fatigue in 2 to 15 min. Time to exhaustion was recorded, and order of the tests was randomized, with 3 hours recovery between tests. The children repeated these tests and 2 additional tests with at least 24 hr recovery between each test. CP was determined using least squares linear regression analysis of the power — t−1 relationship, for the single day (CP1), the 5 tests from different days (CP2), and the repeated 3 tests from different days (CP3). The 95% limits of agreement (range of percentage differences) were −15.4 to 13.1% (CP1 v CP2), −16.8 to 13.5% (CP1 v CP3), and −8.4 to 6.7% (CP2 v CP3). CP is a robust measure even when only 3 tests are completed in a single day and may be used to provide a simple and useful parameter of exercise intensity for constant load exercise with children.

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Santiago A. Ruiz-Alias, Javier Olaya-Cuartero, Alberto A. Ñancupil-Andrade, and Felipe García-Pinillos

—Hyperbolic relationship between velocity and time sustained of athletic world records. If this plot is created with multiple time to exhaustion trials of an athlete, the horizontal asymptote of the hyperbolic relationship denotes the so-called critical speed (CS) or critical power (CP) concept. 4 Defined as

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David W. Hill, Robert P. Steward Jr., and Cindy J. Lane

The purpose of this study was to evaluate use of the critical power concept with swimmers ages 8 to 18 years. Critical velocity (CV) and anaerobic swimming capacity (ASC) were determined from the results of three short time trials (n = 86) or competition swims (n = 60). Data fit the critical power model well, as evidenced by high R2 and low SEE of CV and ASC estimates. CV was correlated with velocity in an endurance swim (r ≥ 0.86) and ASC was correlated with peak lactate (r ≥ 0.69). Thus, even in very young swimmers, CV and ASC provide mode-specific indices of endurance and anaerobic capacity, respectively.

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Mehdi Kordi, Len Parker Simpson, Kevin Thomas, Stuart Goodall, Tom Maden-Wilkinson, Campbell Menzies, and Glyn Howatson

extreme- and severe-intensity domains of the power–duration (P–D) relationship. 1 The P–D relationship describes how the tolerable duration of an event is related to its intensity in a hyperbolic manner; the asymptote represents the critical power (CP), and the curvature constant is termed W ′. 1 – 3

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Jason C. Bartram, Dominic Thewlis, David T. Martin, and Kevin I. Norton

The relationship between intensity and duration that underpins the critical power (CP) model has long provided useful concepts for high-performance sport. 1 The model itself is described by the interaction of CP, a parameter correlating with aerobic measures of fitness, and W ′, a parameter