There is an increasing emphasis on the use of closed kinetic chain exercises in the testing and rehabilitation of many patients with various pathologies. Because of this increased emphasis, there is a need for critical thinking in rehabilitation. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the application of critical thinking in the following areas: examination, specific rehabilitation protocols, the need for outcome research, and the rationale and need for the integration of open and closed kinetic chain exercises and their application to testing and rehabilitation.
The Need for Critical Thinking in Rehabilitation
George J. Davies
Critical Thinking—An Overview with Implications for Physical Education
Ron E. McBride
Critical thinking continues to be an important topic in educational literature. Though intriguing, it is complex, and numerous attempts to define critical thinking have been made. The first part of this paper provides an overview of critical thinking and describes current issues and difficulties inherent to the topic. The second part presents and discusses a schematic representation of a theoretical critical-thinking model for the psychomotor domain.
Critical Thinking and the Evidence-Based Practice of Sport Psychology
Zella E. Moore
The primary purpose of this article is to expand the discussion about the role of science, clinical thinking, the state of the discipline, and the manner in which evidence-based practice may aid in the development of the field of sport psychology. Rejecting pseudoscientific principles and embracing sound scientific standards of research and practice will result in an increasingly fresh and vibrant field from which greater innovation and evolution can occur. This innovation will inevitably lead to a renewed commitment to theory building, as the evolving scientific database will drive new ways of thinking about the myriad of issues presented by athletic clientele. By embracing the evidence-based practice philosophy, not only will sound scientific advancements emerge, but most importantly, the overall well-being of our athletic clientele will be enhanced.
Modifying Teacher Behaviors to Promote Critical Thinking in K–12 Physical Education
Frances Cleland Donnelly, John Helion, and Frank Fry
This study examined four physical educators’ teaching behaviors before and after an intervention. The study was conducted over the span of three 15-week academic semesters. Phase 1 of the study involved videotaping the participants’ instruction prior to intervention. In Phase 2, participants were involved in two workshops planned to convey teaching strategies related to promoting critical thinking in physical education. In addition, participants and co-investigators team-taught three sample lessons focused on incorporating teaching behaviors attempting to foster critical thinking. Data collection was completed during Phase 3 by videotaping each teacher during one unit of instruction. A chi-square analysis of post-intervention data revealed that all four teachers’ observed instructional behaviors differed significantly from that expected. Results suggest that the intervention employed during Phase 2 was successful in helping teachers modify their instruction to promote critical thinking in physical education.
Xs and Os and What the Coach Knows: Improving Team Strategy through Critical Thinking
William B. Strean, Kim L. Senecal, Stephen G. Howlett, and J. Mark Burgess
Critical thinking can be defined most simply as thinking that assesses itself (Paul, 1995). We explored the degree to which coaches engage in critical thinking about strategy. We used Brookfield’s (1995) critical thinking model to examine coaches’ strategic thinking processes. The merit of the model as a tool to facilitate research and intervention in team sports was considered. We examined whether identifying and examining paradigmatic, prescriptive, and causal assumptions, as well as exploring alternatives for thinking and acting, can improve team strategy. The results provide examples of these various conceptual categories. The data support the use of Brookfield’s (1995) model for understanding and intervening with coaches and athletes. Examples of how sport psychology and performance enhancement consultants might use this model in their work are offered.
Links between Children’s Use of Critical Thinking and an Expert Teacher’s Teaching in Creative Dance
Weiyun Chen and Theresa Cone
The purpose of this study was to describe how children’s use of critical thinking skills in their movement actions was inspired and elicited by an “expert” teacher’s task design, task presentation, and instructional strategies during children’s creative dance lessons. The data sources included videotaping 16 creative dance lessons and written anecdotal descriptions. The findings indicated that by presenting sequential open-ended tasks and learning cues and providing instructional scaffolding, the teachers helped the students generate divergent and original movement responses and refinement of dance quality and expression, which are critical thinking elements.