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Kelley Strohacker and Cory T. Beaumont

adults ( Strohacker, Fazzino, Breslin, & Xu, 2015 ), rehabilitation ( Boggenpoel, Nel, & Hanekom, 2018 ), Type 2 diabetes treatment ( Delevatti et al., 2019 ), and exercise oncology ( Fairman, Zourdos, Helms, & Focht, 2017 ). It is interesting that recent criticisms directed toward classic behavior

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Jordan Golding, Aaron Johnson, and Andrew T. Sensenig

Psychological momentum in sports is a series of high or low human performances that seem to defy statistical randomness, and instead is often attributed to a positive feedback system in the athlete’s physiology and psyche. Quantitative approaches have found some evidence of psychological momentum. We measured the throw speeds and accuracy of adult males throwing baseballs while subjecting them to verbal criticism (positive or negative). Our study of short-term momentum suggested evidence of psychological momentum only in top-performing university baseball players, and not in the lower-performing players or in nonathletes.

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Daniel S. Kirschenbaum, David A. Wittrock, Robert J. Smith, and William Monson

We propose that training athletes to use certain cognitive-behavioral procedures, “criticism inoculation training” (CIT), could enable them to circumvent the adverse effects of excessively negativistic coaching. This experiment evaluated the efficacy of one potential CIT strategy, positive self-monitoring (systematically observing and recording instances of success). A laboratory paradigm was used in which 60 male college students attempted to learn the underhand free throw basketball technique from one of four undergraduate pseudocoaches. Subjects were randomly assigned to four groups determined by a 2 (negative vs. no feedback) × 2 (positive vs. no self-monitoring) factorial design. Negative feedback was expected to debilitate, while positive self-monitoring was expected to facilitate performance, sustained self-observation of videotapes of performance, and subjective evaluations of the “coach” and the technique. Negative feedback clearly produced extensive adverse effects, but surprisingly, positive self-monitoring also decreased performance. Theories of skilled motor behavior (MacKay, 1982) and self-regulation (Carver, 1979) helped explain why positive self-monitoring failed as a CIT procedure. This interpretation which focuses on the novelty of the task and the development of negative expectancies also led to suggestions of strategies that could more effectively fulfill the promise of the CIT concept.

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Rosemary Deem

The article explores four modes of critical social theory in the sociology of sport and leisure, and attempts to identify common ground between these, especially in relation to their treatment of gender issues. Perspectives differ not only in their concepts and explanations but also in their underlying domain assumptions. First, the Weberian/Figurational perspective taken by Rojek is considered; this approach is the least concerned with gender, although breaking new ground in other ways. Second, the article looks at the work of the neo-Marxist, Hargreaves, which does include gender and race as issues, although secondary to class. Third is the work of Clarke and Critcher, with an important emphasis on the politics of culture and consumption, but again gender is seen as secondary to class. Finally, recent feminist perspectives are analyzed; here gender is primary, but other issues like class have not always been fully incorporated. Synthesis between different critical approaches to sport and leisure is seen as desirable because of the huge task of transforming these social phenomena. The paper suggests, however, that since the domain assumptions of all four are so different, their best way forward may lie in a new radical pluralist approach that does not a priori see any one social division as paramount.

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Margo E.K. Adam, Abimbola O. Eke, and Leah J. Ferguson

Athlete-identified important competitive events can have more meaning to athletes than a “typical” competition. Sport-related pressures and expectations that arise due to a competition being perceived as important can lead to increased self-criticism, arousal, and stress for athletes, as well as

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Nathan A. Reis, Kent C. Kowalski, Amber D. Mosewich, and Leah J. Ferguson

behaviors (e.g., fear of negative evaluation, fear of self-compassion, fear of failure, state rumination, concern over mistakes, state self-criticism, shame, negative affect, and passivity), as well as positively related to psychological well-being and constructive reactions (e.g., positivity, perseverance

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Jeffrey J. Martin

application. Criticisms of the grant-funding process are proliferating and are wide-ranging. For instance, critical commentaries can be found in disciplines such as biology, social work, psychology, meteorology, counseling, management, economics, law, and earth science (e.g.,  Carlson, 2008 : Feinberg, 2010

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Jimmy Sanderson, Matthew Zimmerman, Sarah Stokowski, and Alison Fridley

via Twitter, including death threats to NFL players whose performances were blamed for fantasy-football defeats. Browning and Sanderson ( 2012 ) examined how student-athletes responded to criticism they received on Twitter, discovering that some were able to ignore the criticism, while others were

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James E. Johnson, Robert M. Turick, Michael F. Dalgety, Khirey B. Walker, Eric L. Klosterman, and Anya T. Eicher

, 2001 ). Due in part to growing criticisms of higher education, academic rigor has recently drawn great attention ( Asher, 2013 ; Collier, 2013 ; Desilver, 2017 ). The American higher education system is routinely attacked for its lack of challenging work, declining standards, and inflation of student