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Øyvind F. Standal, Tor Erik H. Nyquist, and Hanne H. Mong

interviewed, two had a background as sports pedagogues, whereas the others had different occupations, such as nursing and physiotherapy. This reflects the cross-disciplinary nature of the rehabilitation institutions we have investigated. To secure the anonymity of the institutions as well as the individual

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Mark Dyreson and Jaime Schultz

Since the 1981 publication of Perspectives on the Academic Discipline of Physical Education, the history of physical activity has secured a prominent place in the field of kinesiology. Yet, despite encouraging signs of growth, the subdiscipline still remains an undervalued player in the “team scholarship” approach. Without the integration of historical sensibilities in kinesiology’s biggest questions, our understanding of human movement remains incomplete. Historians of physical activity share many “big questions” and “hot topics” with researchers in other domains of kinesiology. Intriguing possibilities for integrating research endeavors between historians and scholars from other domains beckon, particularly as scientists share the historical fascination with exploring the processes of change over time.

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Wen-Yi Wang and Ang Chen

plant beans, expect to harvest beans; if you plant melons, expect to harvest melons.” Although interdisciplinary or cross-disciplinary instruction and learning are necessary to advance individual students’ knowledge repertoire, how, when, and what content should be integrated to achieve optimal learning

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Patricia Vertinsky

activity, paradoxically eliminating the practices of physical activity from its programs ( Newell, 2007 ; Twietmeyer, 2012 ). My disciplinary training as a historian provided the resources to propel my own continuing inquiry into the inter- and cross-disciplinary (and intrinsically entangled) nature of

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Gashaw Abeza, Norm O’Reilly, Benoit Séguin, and Ornella Nzindukiyimana

This work critically assesses the history and current state of social media scholarship in sport management research. Methodologically, the study is based on a comprehensive census review of the current body of literature in the area of social media. The review identifies 123 social media articles in sport management research that were mined from a cross-disciplinary examination of 29 scholarly journals from January 2008 (earliest found) to June 2014. The work identifies the topic areas, the platforms, the theories, and the research methods that have received the (most/least) attention of the social media research community, and provides suggestions for future research.

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Ralph Renger

Vickers (1990) developed a cross-disciplinary knowledge structure of ice hockey by soliciting the expertise of various knowledge engineers (e.g., elite players, coaches, scientists). However, in developing this knowledge structure, the expertise of one important knowledge engineer, the professional hockey scout, was overlooked. The purpose of this investigation was to improve the knowledge base of ice hockey by utilizing professional hockey scouts as knowledge engineers. Through a qualitative analysis of NHL scouting reports filed between 1982 and 1990, several task requirements that were deemed essential by scouts for success as a professional player were identified. Having identified these task requirements, scouts were solicited to provide insight regarding the relative importance of such task requirements. Results established significant differences for between- and within-task requirements for the positions of forward and defense. The importance of these findings to coaching are discussed.

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Bridget C. Foley, Mathew McLaughlin, Sarah Edney, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam, Jessica Seymour, Louisa R. Peralta, Angela Douglas, Simon Rosenbaum, Holly Thorpe, Janice Atkin, Tim Olds, and Ding Ding

The Australasian Society for Physical Activity aims to advance the science and practice of physical activity in Australia, New Zealand, the Pacific Islands, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceania. Fun, enjoyment, and cross-disciplinary discourse are important to ensure the network of physical activity professionals and our collective voice continues to grow. In May 2021, Australasian Society for Physical Activity’s Early Career Network curated an engaging online Physical Activity Debate attended by 206 professionals. This commentary provides a synopsis of the debate and the central arguments presented by the affirmative and negatives teams. The authors describe the debate format and interactive design of the online Physical Activity Debate to provide insights for future online events that aim to boost interaction among physical activity professionals from various disciplines.

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Peter Gould and Nancy Jo Greenawalt

The cross-disciplinary perspectives of the physical educator and human geographer are used to illustrate methodological approaches to the analysis of team games. Spatial transformations of player configurations raise questions of two-dimensional, or Euclidean, regression, from which residuals create inter-pretable vector fields. Asymmetries in team play raise questions of the “winds of influence” blowing through appropriate spaces as graphic summaries of team dynamics. The meteorological analogy is explored further as teams create pressure surfaces, or forcing functions, which control the “flow of the game.” Finally, an algebraic topological language of structure is suggested to describe the dynamics of player-polyhedra by defining a relation upon a set of players engaged in a game.

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Jennifer G. Walker, Kelly R. Evenson, William J. Davis, Philip Bors, and Daniel A. Rodríguez


This comparative case study investigates 2 successful community trail initiatives, using the Active Living By Design (ALBD) Community Action Model as an analytical framework. The model includes 5 strategies: preparation, promotion, programs, policy, and physical projects.


Key stakeholders at 2 sites participated in in-depth interviews (N = 14). Data were analyzed for content using Atlas Ti and grouped according to the 5 strategies.


Preparation: Securing trail resources was challenging, but shared responsibilities facilitated trail development. Promotions: The initiatives demonstrated minimal physical activity encouragement strategies. Programs: Community stakeholders did not coordinate programmatic opportunities for routine physical activity. Policy: Trails’ inclusion in regional greenway master plans contributed to trail funding and development. Policies that were formally institutionalized and enforced led to more consistent trail construction and safer conditions for users. Physical Projects: Consistent standards for wayfinding signage and design safety features enhanced trail usability and safety.


Communities with different levels of government support contributed unique lessons to inform best practices of trail initiatives. This study revealed a disparity between trail development and use-encouragement strategies, which may limit trails’ impact on physical activity. The ALBD Community Action Model provided a viable framework to structure cross-disciplinary community trail initiatives.

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Carla A. Costa

Ongoing debates about appropriate foci and growth of sport management research, application, theory, and training are evidence of the field’s growing pains. These growing pains also occur in other fields in which they function as a means to expand and elaborate the paradigms through which fields of inquiry grow and mature. In this study, a panel of 17 leading sport management scholars from around the globe responded to three iterations of a Delphi questionnaire probing their views about the status and future of the field. Panelists agreed that stronger research, additional cross-disciplinary research, a stronger link between theory and practice, enhanced infrastructure, and improved doctoral training are desirable objectives. They disagreed, however, about the appropriate academic home for sport management, what constitutes quality research, the roles of qualitative vs. quantitative research, and the relative value of basic vs. applied research. The results show that by actively engaging in debates over the issues identified in this study, sport management scholars can explore new ways of perceiving, thinking, and valuing that could enable proficient and constructive development of the field.