Cross-education involves the performance improvement of the untrained limb after a period of unilateral practice (ie, strength, acceleration, skill, endurance) ( 11 , 18 , 19 , 27 , 29 ). Cross-education studies typically entail the testing of contralateral homologous muscles such as the quadriceps
Aymen Ben Othman, Mehdi Chaouachi, Issam Makhlouf, Jonathan P. Farthing, Urs Granacher, David G. Behm and Anis Chaouachi
Tibor Hortobágyi, Kevin Scott, Jean Lambert, George Hamilton and James Tracy
Cross-education enhances the performance of muscles not directly involved in the chronic conditioning of the muscles in a remote limb. Substantial cross-education occurs after training with eccentric contractions or with contractions evoked by electromyostimulation (EMS). Since during EMS and eccentric contractions, skin and muscle afferents are activated that have excitatory effects on contralateral homologous muscles, it was hypothesized that exercise training with stimulated vs. voluntary eccentric contractions would lead to greater cross-education. Thirty-two women were randomly assigned to a voluntary (Vol), an EMS, or a remote EMS (rEMS) exercise group and performed 840 voluntary or stimulated eccentric contractions over 6 weeks. All subjects, including nonexercising controls (Con), were tested pre- and posttraining for maximal voluntary and stimulated isometric and eccentric quadriceps strength. Ipsilateral voluntary and stimulated forces increased in all groups. Changes in EMG activity paralleled those in voluntary force in each limb. No changes occurred in grip strength. The greater contra- and ipsilateral strength gains after EMS training were most likely related to an additive effect of EMS and muscle lengthening.
Alex T. Strauss, Austin J. Parr, Daniel J. Desmond, Ashmel T. Vargas and Russell T. Baker
™ composite scores than exercise programs. The long-term effects of the TMR ® or exercise protocols on FMS ™ composite scores, however, is not currently known. The specific mechanism by which TMR ® works is also unknown. Cross-education and neural coupling provide plausible means to understanding how TMR
Garrett M. Hester, Zachary K. Pope, Mitchel A. Magrini, Ryan J. Colquhoun, Alejandra Barrera-Curiel, Carlos A. Estrada, Alex A. Olmos and Jason M. DeFreitas
& Sale, 1993 ). Presuming training-induced increases in maximal velocity adaptations are mediated through neural factors, it is plausible that short-term RT involving a ballistic intent may be equally effective for enhancing maximal velocity parameters in young and older adults. Cross education, or the
Alan S. Kornspan
The purpose of this article is to examine the influence of E.W. Scripture’s application of the “new psychology” to sport and physical education at the Yale psychology laboratory in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Specifically, an analysis of the influence of the new psychology on the study of the psychological aspects of sport is presented. Research and articles that studied the reaction time, accuracy, cross-education, and influence of physical training on attention and willpower are presented. Finally, the influence of Scripture’s work on the field of sport psychology is described.
Smokey Fermin, Lindsay Larkins, Sarah Beene and David Wetzel
available online. A PICO search strategy was utilized for this CAT: The following search terms and phrases were used: Contralateral Exercise (473), Total Motion Release (TMR) (2), Nerve Cross Education (239), Muscle Cross Education (346), Cross Education (44,499), “Cross Education” (44). Terms Used to Guide
János Négyesi, Menno P. Veldman, Kelly M.M. Berghuis, Marie Javet, József Tihanyi and Tibor Hortobágyi
. , & Cohen , L.G. ( 2002 ). Increase in hand muscle strength of stroke patients after somatosensory stimulation . Annals of Neurology, 51 ( 1 ), 122 – 125 . PubMed doi:10.1002/ana.10070 10.1002/ana.10070 Ehrensberger , M. , Simpson , D. , Broderick , P. , & Monaghan , K. ( 2016 ). Cross-education
Iñigo Mujika, Shona Halson, Louise M. Burke, Gloria Balagué and Damian Farrow
intensity • High specificity • Competing in single- or multiple-day events • May involve multiple rounds (ie, heats, semifinals, finals) • Rest, recover, and regenerate • May include some maintenance training (eg, reduced training, cross-training, cross-education) Recovery • Appropriate recovery to maximize