tested simultaneously using a cross-lagged panel design (see Figure 1 ). The time frames in such a design are the same for both mediation effects. Although the hypotheses have a strong common sense character, systematically testing them to sort out whether they can be confirmed or not contributes
Rob J.H. van Bree, Catherine Bolman, Aart N. Mudde, Maartje M. van Stralen, Denise A. Peels, Hein de Vries, and Lilian Lechner
Raphael Frank, Insa Nixdorf, and Jürgen Beckmann
Findings on burnout and depression in athletes highlight their potential severity. Although both constructs are discussed in similar, stress-based concepts, it is unclear how they relate to each other. To address this issue, we conducted a crosssectional multiple linear regression analysis (MLR; N = 194) and a longitudinal analysis of a three-wave cross-lagged panel (CLP; n = 92) in German junior elite athletes. MLR showed that depression and burnout were both associated with chronic stress. Stress was a significant better predictor for both burnout and depression than each was for the other. CLP analysis on the constructs of burnout and depression revealed support for cross-paths in both directions. Thus, burnout and depression might cause each other to some degree, with no distinct direction of this link. However, as both syndromes do not fully explain each other, interchanging both terms and syndromes should be avoided. Preferably, future research might consider the transfer of knowledge between both syndromes to draw founded conclusions.
Esmie P. Smith, Andrew P. Hill, and Howard K. Hall
Approach To test the three theoretical models cross-lagged panel analysis was used. Cross-lagged effects compare the relationship between variable X (e.g., perfectionism) at time 1 and variable Y at time 2 (e.g., burnout) in the presence of the relationship between variable Y (e.g., burnout) at time
Ian David Boardley, Doris Matosic, and Mark William Bruner
three time points, collecting data from children (i.e., MD) and teachers (i.e., children’s aggression) at the start of fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. Cross-lagged panel analysis demonstrated weak positive cross-lagged effects of MD on aggression between Time 1 and Time 2 and Time 2 and Time 3. In
Lennart Raudsepp and Kristi Vink
results of the cross-lagged panel analysis are displayed in Table 3 . First, the basic model (model 1) with autoregressive paths and within-wave residual correlations fit the data well. All the autoregressive paths were significant and stable over time, indicating the individual differences remained
Markus Gerber, Simon Best, Fabienne Meerstetter, Sandrine Isoard-Gautheur, Henrik Gustafsson, Renzo Bianchi, Daniel J. Madigan, Flora Colledge, Sebastian Ludyga, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, and Serge Brand
= .01–.058 (small), η 2 = .059–.137 (medium), and η 2 ≥ .138 (large). Finally, to gain insights into the reciprocal associations between burnout and insomnia symptoms, we tested cross-lagged panel models using the structural equation approach. As recommended by Anderson and Gerbing ( 1988 ), we
Oliver W.A. Wilson, Scott Graupensperger, M. Blair Evans, and Melissa Bopp
FVC, a longitudinal structural equation modeling technique called random intercept cross-lagged panel modeling (RI-CLPM) 46 was used. RI-CLPM is a multilevel approach that treats the 3 waves of data as nested within participants and controls for time-invariant trait-like differences
Jeffrey Sallen, Christian Andrä, Sebastian Ludyga, Manuel Mücke, and Christian Herrmann
requirements (eg, homoscedasticity, linearity, normality of residuals) were identified. Four saturated pathway models in a cross-lagged panel design were analyzed. These models contained only manifest variables (Figures 1 and 2 ). Models A1 and A2 focused on the relationship between VPA and MC-OM. In models
Thilo Kunkel, Jason P. Doyle, Daniel C. Funk, James Du, and Heath McDonald
The importance of team brand associations in sport management research is well documented, but the formation and stability of these associations has not been investigated. The current research tested the development, change, and predictive ability of brand associations over time. Longitudinal quantitative data were collected from consumers of a new Australian Football League (AFL) team (N = 169) at 3 points in time. One-sample t-tests revealed that brand associations had developed through marketing communications and the launch of the team before the team had played its first AFL game. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance and latent growth modeling showed that brand associations changed over time, reflecting consumers’ experiences with the team. A cross-lagged panel model highlighted that brand associations influenced consumer loyalty in the future. Consequently, sport managers are provided with insights on the development of and change in brand associations that new consumers link with sport teams.
Daniel J. Madigan, Joachim Stoeber, and Louis Passfield
Perfectionism in sports has been shown to be associated with burnout in athletes. Whether perfectionism predicts longitudinal changes in athlete burnout, however, is still unclear. Using a two-wave cross-lagged panel design, the current study examined perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, and athlete burnout in 101 junior athletes (mean age 17.7 years) over 3 months of active training. When structural equation modeling was employed to test a series of competing models, the best-fitting model showed opposite patterns for perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns. Whereas perfectionistic concerns predicted increases in athlete burnout over the 3 mon ths, perfectionistic strivings predicted decreases. The present findings suggest that perfectionistic concerns are a risk factor for junior athletes contributing to the development of athlete burnout whereas perfectionistic strivings appear to be a protective factor.