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Stephanie L. Stockwell, Lindsey R. Smith, Hannah M. Weaver, Daniella J. Hankins and Daniel P. Bailey

sitting and standing. It was hypothesized that higher total daily sitting time and a lower number of breaks in sitting would be associated with increased cardiometabolic risk marker levels. Methods Study Design This was a cross-sectional study design across schools in Bedfordshire, United Kingdom. Data

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Mohamad Al-Tannir, Samer Kobrosly, Taha Itani, Mariam El-Rajab and Sawsan Tannir

Background:

This survey aims to assess the prevalence of physical activity among adult Lebanese, and to report the relationship between sociodemographic variables and physical activity behavior, highlighting the correlates discouraging people to carry out physical activity.

Methods:

A cross-sectional study using an anonymous self-reported questionnaire was conducted on 346 adults from four Lebanese districts. Demographic characteristics, physical activity, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and medical history were obtained.

Results:

Prevalence of physical activity among Lebanese adults was 55.5% (192/346). Age, BMI, marital status, medical history, occupation, educational level, and smoking were significantly associated with physical activity (P < .05). Inactive obese participants were about three times more likely to report hypertension and diabetes than inactive normal weight participants (P = .013). BMI was significantly higher among inactive participants (P = .014).

Conclusion:

Physical activity among Lebanese adults was comparable to other populations. Married, non–office workers, and smokers were the main correlates of physical inactivity in Lebanese adulthood.

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Leandro Martin Totaro Garcia, Kelly Samara da Silva, Giovâni F. Del Duca, Filipe Ferreira da Costa and Markus Vinicius Nahas

Background:

Our purpose was to examine the association of television viewing (hours/day), sedentary work (predominantly sitting at work), passive transportation to work (car or motorcycle), and the clustering of these behaviors (“sedentary lifestyle”), as well as leisure-time physical inactivity (LTPI), with chronic diseases (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and clustering of chronic diseases) in Brazilian workers.

Methods:

Cross-sectional study conducted from 2006 to 2008 in 24 Brazilian federal units (n = 47,477). A questionnaire was applied. Descriptive statistics, binary and multinomial logistic regressions were used.

Results:

Magnitude of association with chronic diseases varied greatly across domains and gender. Sedentariness at work was the most consistent behavior associated with chronic diseases, especially in men (ORhypertension = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01–1.20; ORhypercholesterolemia = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.21–1.48; ORobesity = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.15–1.41; OR1chronic disease = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.09–1.26; OR≥2chronic diseases = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.46–1.78) compared with women (ORhypercholesterolemia = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01–1.31; ORobesity = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.04–1.48). LTPI was associated with all diseases in men (except type 2 diabetes), but only with obesity in women.

Conclusion:

Adverse health consequences may be differently associated according to behavior domain and gender. Sedentary work and LTPI were consistently associated with chronic disease in Brazilian workers, especially in men.

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Carla Elane Silva dos Santos, Sofia Wolker Manta, Guilherme Pereira Maximiano, Susana Cararo Confortin, Tânia Rosane Bertoldo Benedetti, Eleonora d’Orsi and Cassiano Ricardo Rech

-income countries. 8 Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the level of physical activity and SB, measured with accelerometers, in older adults from a city in southern Brazil according to sociodemographic and health characteristics. Methods This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study using data from

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Diego G.D. Christofaro, Bruna C. Turi-Lynch, Kyle R. Lynch, William R. Tebar, Rômulo A. Fernandes, Fernanda G. Tebar, Gregore I. Mielke and Xuemei Sui

psychological well-being: a cross-sectional study of Japanese schoolchildren . J Phys Act Health . 2017 ; 14 ( 4 ): 270 – 274 . PubMed ID: 28032812 doi:10.1123/jpah.2016-0374 28032812 10.1123/jpah.2016-0374 5. Ekelund U , Brage S , Froberg K , et al . TV viewing and physical activity are

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Yoojin Suh, Madeline Weikert, Deirdre Dlugonski, Brian Sandroff and Robert W. Motl

Background:

Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) are often physically inactive and sedentary. This observation has prompted the search for modifiable variables derived from established theories that act as correlates of physical activity. Such variables would presumably represent targets for interventions designed to promote change in physical activity behavior among persons with MS. The current study examined social cognitive variables as correlates of physical activity in persons with MS.

Methods:

Persons (N = 218) with relapsing-remitting MS completed a questionnaire battery that assessed physical activity behavior; self-efficacy for physical activity; physical, social, and self-evaluative outcome expectations for exercise, functional limitations as an impediment for physical activity, and exercise goal-setting. The battery was delivered and returned through the US postal service. Data were analyzed using covariance modeling in Mplus 3.0.

Results:

Self-efficacy had indirect effects on physical activity via impediments (path coefficient = .10, P < .005), self-evaluative outcome expectations (path coefficient = .07, P < .025), and goal-setting (path coefficient = .09, P < .01). The model explained 40% of variance in self-reported physical activity.

Conclusions:

This cross-sectional study suggests that self-efficacy is indirectly associated with physical activity by way of goals, self-evaluative outcome expectations, and impediments in persons with relapsing-remitting MS.

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Akitomo Yasunaga, Yukari Kawano, Yumiko Kamahori and Kyoko Noguchi

Background:

The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between the level of exercise behavior and individual and environmental factors related to exercise behavior among female Japanese undergraduate students.

Methods:

The participants were 2482 female Japanese undergraduate students. Participants’ level of exercise behavior was measured by the stage of change to exercise in the transtheoretical model. Individual and environmental factors related to exercise behavior were assessed using body mass index, self-efficacy, social support, perceived positive and negative aspects of exercise, perceived neighborhood environment, attitude toward physical education lessons in childhood and puberty, and depression.

Results:

Scores for self-efficacy, social support, positive aspects of exercise, and perceived neighborhood environment were significantly higher among women who were more active compared with those who were inactive. On the other hand, scores for negative aspects of exercise and depression were greater among inactive women compared with those who were insufficiently active and/or active. In addition, past attitude toward exercise in primary school, junior high school, and high school was associated with current level of exercise behavior.

Conclusions:

This cross-sectional study confirmed that psychosocial and environmental factors were closely associated with level of exercise behavior among female Japanese undergraduate students.

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Josep C. Benitez-Martinez, Jose Casaña-Granell, Yasmin Ezzatvar de Llago, Carlos Villaron-Casales, Gemma V. Espi-Lopez and Fernando Jimenez-Diaz

Context:

The supraspinatus muscle has an important role in the stabilization of the glenohumeral joint. Identifying abnormalities concerning its size and the subacromial space in the presence of pain may be relevant to provide more specific treatments focused on the etiology of pain.

Objective:

To determinate whether painful shoulder causes changes in the supraspinatus cross-sectional area (CSA) and the acromio-humeral distance (AHD) between overhead athletes.

Design:

Cross-sectional study.

Setting:

University campus and local sports clubs’ Physical Therapist room.

Participants:

81 male overhead athletes were divided into 2 groups according to the presence of shoulder pain and clinical symptoms.

Main Outcome Measures:

Ultrasonography measurements of the supraspinatus CSA and the AHD in 2 groups of overhead athletes with and without pain.

Results:

In the pain group, the CSA was significantly smaller compared with the no pain group. No differences between groups were found in the AHD measurement.

Conclusions:

Shoulder pain in overhead athletes was associated with a reduction in their supraspinatus muscle CSA, but not in the AHD. These findings suggest that muscle atrophy exists in the presence of pain. However, in active overhead athletes, the AHD is not clearly reduced in overhead athletes with shoulder pain. Further studies are needed to understand this condition.

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Silvia Aranda-García, Albert Busquets, Antoni Planas, Joan A. Prat-Subirana and Rosa M. Angulo-Barroso

Purpose:

Gait speed is related to physical function in older adults. This cross-sectional study examined the best predictors of maximal gait speed (MGS) among physical abilities, and general factors in healthy, rural community-dwelling older adults.

Methods:

MGS, muscle strength, and postural sway were measured in 55 community-dwelling participants (age, 72.1 ± 6.8, range 61–87 years; 72.7% women). Two stepwise regressions were used to find MGS predictors in two models: physical abilities and global.

Results:

Strength of knee extensors with 60° of knee flexion (KStrength60°) and maximal distance in the anterior-posterior direction with eyes closed explained 50.2% of MGS variance (p < .05) in the physical abilities model. KStrength60°, age, and level of physical activity explained 63.9% of MGS variance (p < .05) in the global model.

Conclusions:

Regardless of the model, KStrength60° was the best predictor of MGS in rural female older adults. Future research should examine the generalization of these findings to rural male older adults.

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Lasse Ishøi, Per Aagaard, Mathias F. Nielsen, Kasper B. Thornton, Kasper K. Krommes, Per Hölmich and Kristian Thorborg

athletes. Experimental identification of this will provide novel insights into the specific role of the hamstring muscles for sprint performance including implications of physical training for athletes aiming to improve sprint performance. Therefore, the aim of this explorative cross-sectional study was to