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Brett S. Pexa, Eric D. Ryan, Elizabeth E. Hibberd, Elizabeth Teel, Terri Jo Rucinski and Joseph B. Myers

.8)* Day 4 14.7 (2.3) 15.0 (2.6) 45.9 (7.7) 57.6 (5.7) 118.7 (9.2) 111.9 (9.8) 163.9 (13.6) 169.8 (13.6) Day 5 14.1 (2.1) 15.4 (2.6) 46.2 (7.2) 60.3 (5.8)* 121.5 (8.1)* 113.4 (9.5) 167.7 (10.8)* 173.7 (13.2)* Abbreviations: CSA, cross-sectional area; Dom, dominant; NDom, nondominant. *Significant change

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Corbin A. Hedt, S. Brett Holland, Bradley S. Lambert, Joshua D. Harris and Patrick C. McCulloch

Design This study was conducted as a cross-sectional observational study utilizing an electronic survey through the “SurveyMonkey” portal (SurveyMonkey Inc, Palo Alto, CA). The Houston Methodist Institutional Review Board approved the study. Survey Design The research team developed a preliminary survey

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Stephanie L. Stockwell, Lindsey R. Smith, Hannah M. Weaver, Daniella J. Hankins and Daniel P. Bailey

sitting and standing. It was hypothesized that higher total daily sitting time and a lower number of breaks in sitting would be associated with increased cardiometabolic risk marker levels. Methods Study Design This was a cross-sectional study design across schools in Bedfordshire, United Kingdom. Data

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Atsuki Fukutani and Toshiyuki Kurihara

Recent studies have reported that resistance training increases the cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of tendons; however, this finding has not been consistently observed across different studies. If tendon CSA increases through resistance training, resistance-trained individuals should have larger tendon CSAs as compared with untrained individuals. Therefore, in the current study, we aimed to investigate whether resistance training increases tendon CSAs by comparing resistance-trained and untrained individuals. Sixteen males, who were either body builders or rugby players, were recruited as the training group, and 11 males, who did not participate in regular resistance training, were recruited into the control group. Tendon CSAs and muscle volumes of the triceps brachii, quadriceps femoris, and triceps surae were calculated from images obtained by using magnetic resonance imaging. The volumes of the 3 muscles were significantly higher in the training group than in the control group (P < .001 for all muscles). However, a significant difference in tendon CSAs was found only for the distal portion of the triceps surae tendon (P = .041). These findings indicate that tendon CSA is not associated with muscle volume, suggesting that resistance training does not increase tendon CSA.

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Marie H. Murphy, Angela Carlin, Catherine Woods, Alan Nevill, Ciaran MacDonncha, Kyle Ferguson and Niamh Murphy

and results contained within this paper include phase 2 of the study, a cross-sectional analysis of university students across the island of Ireland in 2014–2015. An audit of the environment and institutional provision for sport and physical activity comprised phase 1, and objective fitness measures

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Dahai Yu, Ying Chen, Tao Chen, Yamei Cai, Rui Qin, Zhixin Jiang and Zhanzheng Zhao

associated with reduced renal function in different types of population. 13 , 25 , 26 However, we did not investigate this relationship in this study. This study was first limited by its cross-sectional design, so no formal attempt with regard to causality would be discussed. However, our observation that

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Lee Smith, Brendon Stubbs, L. Hu, Nicola Veronese, Davy Vancampfort, Genevieve Williams, Domenico Vicinanza, Sarah E. Jackson, Li Ying, Guillermo F. López-Sánchez and Lin Yang

. We hypothesized that lower levels of active travel or LTPA would be associated with unfavorable cardiometabolic risk factor outcomes. Methods Study Population Cross-sectional analyses using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were carried out. The NHANES was

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Weiyang Deng, Douglas L. Vanderbilt and Beth A. Smith

.3 Procedures This research was approved by the Institutional Review Boards of the University of Southern California and by Oregon Health & Science University. A parent or legal guardian signed an informed consent form prior to their infant’s participation. As this is a cross-sectional study, we only utilized

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Melissa N. Galea Holmes, John A. Weinman and Lindsay M. Bearne

) and, therefore, provides a meaningful outcome when evaluating constructs from health behavior theories. However, no studies involving individuals with IC have explored constructs defined by the TPB or CSM, alone or in combination, as determinants of the 6MWD. A cross-sectional observational evaluation

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Sara M. Scharoun, David A. Gonzalez, Eric A. Roy and Pamela J. Bryden

comparison has yet to be examined. The primary aim of the current study was to fill the gap, using the overturned-glass task from Scharoun, Gonzalez, Roy, and Bryden ( 2016 ). A cross-sectional design was implemented to assess ESC in 5- to 12-year-old children, young adults, and two groups of older adults