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Smita Rao, Fred Dietz, and H. John Yack

The purpose of this study was to compare estimates of gastrocnemius muscle length (GML) obtained using a segmented versus straight-line model in children. Kinematic data were acquired on eleven typically developing children as they walked under the following conditions: normal gait, crouch gait, equinus gait, and crouch with equinus gait. Maximum and minimum GML, and GML change were calculated using two models: straight-line and segmented. A two-way RMANOVA was used to compare GML characteristics. Results indicated that maximum GML and GML change during simulated pathological gait patterns were influenced by model used to calculate gastrocnemius muscle length (interaction: P = .004 and P = .026). Maximum GML was lower in the simulated gait patterns compared with normal gait (P < .001). Maximum GML was higher with the segmented model compared with the straight-line model (P = .030). Using either model, GML change in equinus gait and crouch with equinus gait was lower compared with normal gait (P < .001). Overall, minimum GML estimated with the segmented model was higher compared with the straight-line model (P < .01). The key findings of our study indicate that GML is significantly affected by both gait pattern and method of estimation. The GML estimates tended to be lower with the straight-line model versus the segmented model.

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Justine J. Reel and Emily Crouch

and ideas for special issues. Justine J. Reel, PhD, LPC, CMPC, Editor-in-Chief Emily Crouch, MEd References Fasting , K. , Brackenridge , C. , & Walseth , K. ( 2007 ). Women athletes’ personal responses to sexual harassment in sport . Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 19 ( 4 ), 419 – 433

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Allison J. Nelson, Patrick T. Hall, Katherine R. Saul, and Dustin L. Crouch

, et al . OpenSim: open-source software to create and analyze dynamic simulations of movement . IEEE Trans Biomed Eng . 2007 ; 54 ( 11 ): 1940 – 1950 . PubMed ID: 18018689 doi:10.1109/TBME.2007.901024 10.1109/TBME.2007.901024 18018689 43. Crouch DL , Santago AC , Plate JF , Li Z , Saul

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Darrell W. Crouch, Phillip Ward, and Craig A. Patrick

In this study, three variations of a withdrawal design were used to assess the effects that group instruction, peer-dyads, and peer-mediated accountability had on the number of trials performed, and how successful those trials were, during one-minute trials of volleyball skills. Peer-mediated accountability consisted of teacher-established goals, peer recording of performance, public posting of student performance, and special content-related activities that served as public recognition of achievement. Participants were 67 elementary school students in grades 4 through 6. Results indicated that students performed more trials and were generally more successful in the peer-mediated accountability condition than during either the peer-dyads or group instruction. Findings are discussed in terms of the contingent relation between tasks and consequences created by the peer-mediated accountability variable.

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Phillip Ward, Shannon L. Smith, Kemal Makasci, and Darrell W. Crouch

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of peer-mediated accountability (PMA) on average male and female students and low skilled female students during the performance of the lay-up in basketball. A multiple baseline design was used to assess the effects of PMA on the number of trials performed and the percentage of correct trials. Participants were 9 elementary school students in Grades 4 and 5. Peer-mediated accountability was effective in increasing the opportunities to respond for both average and low skilled students but did not change the percentage of correct performances by the students. These results support previous findings that suggest that, though PMA is an effective strategy to promote opportunities to respond, it is an inappropriate strategy to use when students cannot perform the skill. An analysis of the data also revealed that the lower skilled students performed a similar number of trials as their counterparts.

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Craig A. Patrick, Phillip Ward, and Darrell W. Crouch

This study investigated the effects of a semiformal accountability intervention (a modified version of the good behavior game) on the occurrence of appropriate and inappropriate social behaviors, and appropriate skill attempts during a 20-lesson volleyball unit. Participants were 67 students in Grades 4, 5, and 6. Following the collection of baseline data, students received intervention consisting of (a) differential awarding and removing of points for appropriate and inappropriate behavior, (b) public posting of team points, (c) the establishment of daily criteria, (d) a special activity for teams that met the criteria, and (e) an end-of-unit activity for teams that consistently met the criteria. A multiple baseline design across students showed that the intervention was effective in reducing inappropriate social behaviors and increasing appropriate social behaviors, but did not affect the number of correct volleyball skills performed. Results are discussed relative to task systems and social skills.

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Edward J. Bradley, Bob Hogg, and David T. Archer

process of crouch-touch-pause-engage that allowed the front rows to squat a fixed distance apart and crash together on the “engage” command. This resulted in a collision between the opposing teams, where winning the contest was primarily due to greater force development. 14 Peak impact forces of 16.5 kN

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Ogün Köyağasıoğlu and Cengizhan Özgürbüz

OCT-2) and are presented in Figures  3 and 4 . Both OCT tests included combinations of crouching, turning, leaning, stepping over, changing direction, walking on various surfaces or using repeated hand and arm movement tasks. OCT-1 and OCT-2 tests were similar in terms of the tasks they included

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Kelsey Timm, Cindra Kamphoff, Nick Galli, and Stephen P. Gonzalez

The historic Boston Marathon was struck by tragedy in 2013 when two bombs exploded near the finish line during the race. This tragedy provided the opportunity to study resilience in marathon runners, whose experience overcoming minor adversities may help them respond resiliently to trauma (Dyer & Crouch, 1988). The purpose of this study was to employ qualitative methods to examine the role of resilience in helping runners overcome their experience at the 2013 Boston Marathon. The researchers used Galli and Vealey’s (2008) Conceptual Model of Sport Resilience as a guide. Sixteen 2013 Boston Marathon runners were interviewed. Participants reported experiencing a confusing, unpleasant race day, followed by months of mixed emotions and coping strategies, which were mediated by personal resources and ultimately led to positive outcomes including increased motivation, strength, new perspectives, and a greater sense of closeness in the running community.

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Edward C. Frederick, Jeremy J. Determan, Saunders N. Whittlesey, and Joseph Hamill

Seven top amateur or professional skateboarders (BW = 713 N ± 83 N) performed Ollie maneuvers onto and off an elevated wooden platform (45.7 cm high). We recorded ground reaction force (GRF) data for three Ollie Up (OU) and Ollie Down (OD) trials per participant. The vertical GRF (VGRF) during the OU has a characteristic propulsive peak (M = 2.22 body weight [BW] ± 0.22) resulting from rapidly rotating the tail of the board into the ground to propel the skater and board up and forward. The anterior-posterior (A-P) GRF also shows a pronounced peak (M = 0.05 ± 0.01 BW) corresponding with this propulsive VGRF peak. The initial phase of landing in the OD shows an impact peak in VGRF rising during the first 30 to 80 ms to a mean of 4.74 ± 0.46 BW. These impact peaks are higher than expected given the relatively short drop of 45.7 cm and crouched body position. But we observed that our participants intentionally affected a firm landing to stabilize the landing position; and the Ollie off the platform raised the center of mass, also contributing to higher forces.