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Clinical Applications of Therapeutic Modalities Among Collegiate Athletic Trainers, Part I: Cryotherapy

Jeremy R. Hawkins and Shawn W. Hawkins

Cryotherapy is commonly used by athletic trainers, although evidence is inconsistent to support its usage. Data are also lacking as to how athletic trainers treat common injuries with cryotherapy. The purpose of this study was to ascertain how collegiate athletic trainers approach the use of cryotherapy and whether that usage reflects what little we know about the modalities. Survey results indicated great variability in respondents’ approaches to the treatment of an acute and subacute ankle sprain. Additional data are needed to create clear treatment guidelines with respect to cryotherapy. Certain aspects of the application of cryotherapy should be reviewed and use adjusted accordingly.

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Kinesio® Tape Barrier Does Not Inhibit Intramuscular Cooling During Cryotherapy

Katie J. Lyman, Michael McCrone, Thomas A. Hanson, Christopher D. Mellinger, and Kara Gange

Cryotherapy is a common therapy used by allied health care professionals to treat orthopedic injuries 1 and to manage acute musculoskeletal injuries. 2 Purported benefits of cryotherapy include minimizing inflammation, edema, hypoxic injury, and soft-tissue damage, as well as reducing muscle

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Effects of 7 Consecutive Systematic Applications of Cryotherapy With Compression

Lisa S. Jutte and Dylan J. Paracka

Cryotherapy is one of the most common treatments used to treat patients with orthopedic injury and provide postsurgical care. 1 In clinical practice, cryotherapy is commonly applied for a set application time at set intervals immediately after acute injury or surgery. An example of this systematic

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The Effect of Elevation on Intramuscular Tissue Temperatures

Cordial M. Gillette and Mark A. Merrick

least literature regarding its effectiveness is elevation. Cryotherapy, the therapeutic use of cold modalities such as ice, is frequently used in the acute management of musculoskeletal injuries. The primary rationale for cryotherapy in these instances is to reduce pain, slow edema formation, and limit

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Wetted Ice With Elastic Wrap Decreases Intramuscular Temperature More Quickly Than Game Ready®

Courtney R. Anderson, Kara N. Gange, Bryan Christensen, and Rachelle Vettern

considered over other cryotherapy modalities. Cryotherapy, or cold therapy, is the application of a device or substance with a temperature less than body temperature, causing heat to pass from the body to the cryotherapy device. 1 Cold therapy produces a decline in tissue temperatures as the body responds

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The Effectiveness of Photobiomodulation Therapy Versus Cryotherapy for Skeletal Muscle Recovery: A Critically Appraised Topic

Stephan R. Fisher, Justin H. Rigby, Joni A. Mettler, and Kevin W. McCurdy

regulatory factors, and increases the formation of new red blood cells locally. 2 These effects make PBMT a valuable treatment option for muscle recovery; however, PBMT has not become a mainstream tool for muscle recovery in clinical practice. For decades, cryotherapy has been a popular modality for

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The Efficacy of Cryotherapy on Decreasing Swelling: A Critically Appraised Topic

Rachel A. Ziner, Jamie L. Mansell, Anne C. Russ, and Ryan T. Tierney

Clinical Scenario Cryotherapy has been used throughout history as a recommendation for the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions. 1 Ice bags and ice packs are commonly used cryotherapy interventions, 2 , 3 often employed in conjunction with other interventions (e.g., compression, PRICE

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Temporal Patterns of Knee-Extensor Isokinetic Torque Strength in Male and Female Athletes Following Comparison of Anterior Thigh and Knee Cooling Over a Rewarming Period

Jill Alexander and David Rhodes

physiologic effects include reduced cellular metabolism, 5 receptor firing rate, 6 nerve conduction velocity, 7 and inhibition of muscle spindles 8 , 9 are well reported. 2 , 3 Reduction of tissue temperatures through local cryotherapy applications occurs through contact of cryotherapeutic modalities via

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The Effect of Cryotherapy Application to the Knee Joint on Dynamic Postural Stability

Karl Fullam, Brian Caulfield, Garrett F. Coughlan, Wayne McNulty, David Campbell, and Eamonn Delahunt

One of the purported benefits of cryotherapy is the ability of this therapeutic modality to induce analgesia. 1 , 2 Cryotherapy is, therefore, regularly used as an immediate treatment for pain relief following acute injuries, potentially allowing athletes who incur minor sprains or contusions to

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Partial-Body Cryotherapy Exposure 2 Hours Prior to a Shuttle Run Does Not Enhance Running Performance

Emily M. Partridge, Julie Cooke, Andrew J. McKune, and David B. Pyne

recovery. By using a passive priming strategy, in conjunction with a routine dynamic warm-up, athletes could benefit from a combination of both active and passive warm-ups in the lead-up to training or competition. Partial-body cryotherapy (PBC), involving brief passive exposure to temperatures of −110°C