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Jennifer L. Etnier and Daniel M. Landers

The primary purpose of this study was to examine differences in performance on fluid and crystallized intelligence tasks as a function of age and fitness. A secondary purpose was to examine the influence of age and fitness on the beneficial effects that practice has on both performance and retention on these tasks. Fitness was assessed in 41 older and 42 younger participants who were then randomly assigned to either experimental or control conditions. Participants performed repeated trials on two cognitive tasks during acquisition and retention, with the experimental group practicing for 100 trials and the control group practicing for 20 trials. Older participants performed better than younger participants on the crystallized intelligence task: however, younger participants performed better than older participants on the fluid intelligence task. On the fluid intelligence task, older fit participants performed better than older unfit participants. Learning did occur on the fluid task and differed as a function of age and fitness. Learning did not occur on the crystallized task.

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Mary Louise Adams, Michelle T. Helstein, Kyoung-yim Kim, Mary G. McDonald, Judy Davidson, Katherine M. Jamieson, Samantha King and Geneviéve Rail

This collection of commentaries emerged from ongoing conversations among the contributors about our varied understandings of and desires for the sport studies field. One of our initial concerns was with the absence/presence of feminist thought within sport studies. Despite a rich history of feminist scholarship in sport studies, we have questioned the extent to which feminism is currently being engaged or acknowledged as having shaped the field. Our concerns crystallized during the spirited feminist responses to a fiery roundtable debate on Physical Cultural Studies (PCS) at the annual conference of the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport (NASSS) in New Orleans in November 2012. At that session, one audience member after another spoke to what they saw as the unacknowledged appropriation by PCS proponents of longstanding feminist—and feminist cultural studies—approaches to scholarship and writing. These critiques focused not just on the intellectual moves that PCS scholars claim to be making but on how they are made, with several audience members and some panelists expressing their concerns about the territorializing effects of some strains of PCS discourse.

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R.L. Caughron

televised sport is in a moment of conjuncture in which conflicts inherent to several of its most foundational religious (or, as I define them shortly, “theological”) images and tropes are becoming visible and crystallizing around points of rupture and (2) processes of historical change related to these

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Risto Marttinen, Dillon Landi, Ray N. Fredrick III and Stephen Silverman

 = junior; SR = senior; SES = socioeconomic status. Data Sources The forms of qualitative data generation were interviews, observations, and classroom artifacts. The purpose of using several data methods was to crystallize ( Ellingson, 2009 ) the data. Crystallization was coined by Richardson to challenge

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Philip D. Imholte, Jedediah E. Blanton and Michelle M. McAlarnen

elucidate this essence, the purpose of the present study was to identify, examine, and crystallize data on a single case of informal athlete leadership in Minor League Baseball (MiLB). Method Research Approach To provide a contextually relevant and comprehensive investigation of one athlete’s emergence as

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Danielle Peers, Timothy Konoval and Rebecca Marsh Naturkach

researchers do a preliminary analysis of each webpage, not to validate the places where we overlapped (triangulation), but rather to multiply the perspectives and readings (crystallization; Ellingson, 2008 ), as well as to support trainees in theoretical consistency. This work is thus constructed through the

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Jahan Heidari, Johanna Belz, Monika Hasenbring, Jens Kleinert, Claudia Levenig and Michael Kellmann

injuries among athletes. The integration of psychological aspects has crystallized as a pivotal approach in various contexts of the general population, including physically active individuals. 14 , 15 In various settings such as primary care, rehabilitation, and work, the factors dysfunctional cognitions

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Chen Chen and Daniel S. Mason

. 689). Similarly, Coronil ( 2008 ) argued that the dominant discourses of globalization “dissolve the ‘West’ into the market and crystallize it in less-visible transnational modules of concentrated financial and political power” (p. 416). Moreover, Mendieta’s ( 2008 ) analysis of the discourse of

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Cecilia Stenling and Michael Sam

this preparatory phase, the third step continued with a fine-grained inductive analysis that crystallized: (a) elements which sport advocates consider constitutive of effective advocacy claims and (b) effects which potentially arise from the proffering of claims with these particular elements. From the

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Yoko Kanemasu

part, been crystallized in the two players who became the first Indo-Fijians to represent Fiji in rugby. This article has highlighted that counterhegemony, as explicated by Gramsci, entails such an ongoing process of realignment of ideological and cultural complexes. Counterhegemony is also often