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Katie J. Lyman, Michael McCrone, Thomas A. Hanson, Christopher D. Mellinger and Kara Gange

). The type of ice or other modality used in cryotherapy has been shown to influence intramuscular temperature, 22 , 33 and cubed ice was chosen for use in the present study because it is commonly available in a clinic setting. Figure 3 —Cryotherapy application of 1- and 0.5-kg bags of ice cubes shown

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Tyler A. Beauregard, Jade Vaile, Lucas Whitney, Mark Merrick and Valerie Moody

included ice cube, ice pack, commercial cold pack, saltwater pack, surgical steel enswell, and enswell-type metal blocks of copper, aluminum, and brass applied in a random order in a single session. The participants received each intervention for 60 Seconds, and the skin temperature was allowed to return

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Eric J. Hunter, Jennifer Ostrowski, Matthew Donahue, Caitlyn Crowley and Valerie Herzog


Many researchers have investigated the effectiveness of different cryotherapy agents at decreasing intramuscular tissue temperatures. However, no one has looked at the effectiveness of adding salt to an ice bag.


To compare the cooling effectiveness of different ice bags (wetted, salted cubed, and salted crushed) on cutaneous and intramuscular temperatures.


Repeated-measures counterbalanced design.


University research laboratory.


24 healthy participants (13 men, 11 women; age 22.46 ± 2.33 y, height 173.25 ± 9.78 cm, mass 74.51 ± 17.32 kg, subcutaneous thickness 0.63 ± 0.27 cm) with no lower-leg injuries, vascular diseases, sensitivity to cold, compromised circulation, or chronic use of NSAIDs.


Ice bags made of wetted ice (2000 mL ice and 300 mL water), salted cubed ice (intervention A; 2000 mL of cubed ice and 1/2 tablespoon of salt), and salted crushed ice (intervention B; 2000 mL of crushed ice and 1/2 tablespoon of salt) were applied to the posterior gastrocnemius for 30 min. Each participant received all conditions with at least 4 d between treatments.

Main Outcome Measure:

Cutaneous and intramuscular (2 cm plus adipose thickness) temperatures of nondominant gastrocnemius were measured during a 10-min baseline period, a 30-min treatment period, and a 45-min rewarming period.


Differences from baseline were observed for all treatments. The wetted-ice and salted-cubed-ice bags produced significantly lower intramuscular temperatures than the salted-crushed-ice bag. Wetted-ice bags produced the greatest temperature change for cutaneous tissues.


Wetted- and salted-cubed-ice bags were equally effective at decreasing intramuscular temperature at 2 cm subadipose. Clinical practicality may favor salted-ice bags over wetted-ice bags.

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Kavin K.W. Tsang, Barton P. Buxton, W. Kent Guion, A. Barry Joyner and Kathy D. Browder

The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in skin temperature during ice application through a dry towel and a dry elastic bandage compared to application on bare skin. Nine subjects completed a 30-min treatment session that consisted of 0.68 kg of cubed ice applied under three conditions: through a dry towel, through a dry elastic bandage, and directly on the skin (control). Following the removal of the ice, all subjects were monitored for 20-min for skin temperature (S temp). There was a significant interaction in S temp between the control (12.50 ± 4.39 °C) and dry towel (23.48 ± 2.88 °C) conditions, the control (12.50 ± 4.39 °C) and dry elastic wrap (27.47 ± 2.36 °C) conditions, and the dry towel (23.48 ± 2.88 °C) and dry elastic wrap (27.47 ± 2.36 °C) conditions. The findings indicated that using a barrier (dry towel or dry elastic bandage) limits the temperature-reducing capacity of the ice and therefore its potential physiological effects.

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Jennifer Ostrowski, Angelina Purchio, Maria Beck, JoLynn Leisinger, Mackenzie Tucker and Sarah Hurst

cubed ice + 150-mL water) that are secured into the anatomically designed sleeves using velcro. Two previous studies have found that ice bags and slush bucket cooled intramuscular tissue to a greater extent than Game Ready, 17 , 18 whereas another study found no statistical difference in intramuscular

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Jennifer Ostrowski, Angelina Purchio, Maria Beck and JoLynn Leisinger

3 consecutive readings). The treatment condition was then applied to the posterior aspect of the calf. Salted IB was prepared with 2000-mL cubed ice and half tablespoon salt, and it was secured with elastic compression maintained at 50 mm Hg. (Pressure was measured using a pressure gauge during

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Jill Alexander and David Rhodes

application either to the anterior thigh or to the knee region followed, 2 depending on allocation of group. Previous research surrounding cooling techniques recommends use of wetted ice. 12 – 14 Therefore, the protocol for wetted ice intervention consisted of 800 mL of cubed ice and 800 mL of room

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Cordial M. Gillette and Mark A. Merrick

, Baker RJ . Comparisons of cubed ice, crushed ice, and wetted ice on intramuscular and surface temperature changes . J Athl Train . 2009 ; 44 ( 2 ): 136 – 141 . PubMed ID: 19295957 doi:10.4085/1062-6050-44.2.136 19295957 10.4085/1062-6050-44.2.136 24. Merrick MA , Jutte LS , Smith ME