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Fung Kuen Koo

This qualitative study explores how older Hong Kong Chinese Australians perceive aging and to what extent this perception affects their participation in physical activities. The main methods used were in-depth interviews with 22 participants ranging in age from 60 to 91 years. Interviews were translated from Chinese (Cantonese) and transcribed into English. Content analysis was used to find recurring themes from the interview data. The main findings indicate that the perception of aging is to some extent influenced by culture. Some participants defined aging as being measured in years, and others defined it by the state of one’s physical health, appearance, and capacity to continue fulfilling one’s social roles. These perceptions strongly influenced their preferences for and participation in physical activities. Acknowledging the fact that Chinese-speaking people are not culturally homogeneous, this article makes some recommendations to health service providers with regard to the development of appropriate physical activity programs.

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Callie Batts Maddox

In 2020, baseball and softball will return to the Olympics after a twelve-year absence. Leading the effort to secure reinstatement was the World Baseball Softball Confederation (WBSC), the international governing body for the two sports established in 2013 upon the merging of the International Baseball Federation and the International Softball Federation. Faced with continual threats of Olympic exclusion, the WBSC offers a unique model of global governance in that one federation is in charge of two very different sports. The history and work of the WBSC is made more complicated by the gendered bifurcation of baseball and softball, and systemic cultural beliefs that mark baseball as male and softball as female. Utilizing this gendered tension as a guiding framework, this article traces the emergence of the WBSC and suggests that the global governance of two sports under the single banner of the WBSC risks reproducing long-standing gender stereotypes and assumptions.

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Susan L. Greendorfer

This paper analyzes the ideological discourse that socializes us into ways of thinking about gender equity and Title IX. My contention is that the ideological principle of equity which underlies Title IX is on a collision course with cultural beliefs that contribute to a patriarchal gender ideology. Socially constructed meanings and beliefs that interpret gender difference as gender hierarchy not only contribute to dominant gender ideology but are also a critical ingredient of the process of socialization. As a cultural process influenced by hegemonic beliefs about gender, we are socialized into values and beliefs anchored in patriarchy that hegemonically construct sport as masculine. Ideologically, Title IX, which is based on feminist notions of equality, challenges these cultural constructions because it allows for alternative readings of sport, masculine bodies, feminine bodies, and the gendered nature of physicality. The discourse of backlash, a component of hegemonic socialization steeped in gender hierarchy, offers resistance to notions of equality (Title IX), which can be viewed as counterhegemonic. In opposition to the symbolic as well as legal challenge of Title IX, which problematizes the organizational culture of sport, the discourse of backlash offers one way of preserving hegemonic gender ideology.

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Mitali S. Thanawala, Juned Siddique, John A. Schneider, Alka M. Kanaya, Andrew J. Cooper, Swapna S. Dave, Nicola Lancki and Namratha R. Kandula

’ age, gender, education, income, marital status, and traditional cultural beliefs were collected at the baseline study visit (2010–2013) as previously described 25 and were included as covariates in regression models. We also included self-rated health, which was measured at the social networks visit

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Richard Pringle

together, the chapters in No Slam Dunk explore and illuminate the complexities and unevenness of social change in gender and sport by deploying a multilevel analysis (structure, interaction, cultural beliefs and symbols), by attending to varying levels of salience and inequalities within and between

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Rebecca E. Hasson

( Braveman et al., 2011 ). With regard to ethnicity, different cultures place varying value on overall health, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors. Children and adolescents whose cultural beliefs undervalue the importance of regular physical activity will likely have less support and fewer

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Kyle Siler

—but often mercurial—raw talent. Edwards ( 2000 : 9) bluntly argued that black athletes are hindered by cultural beliefs underpinned by a “long-standing, widely held, racist and ill-informed presumption of innate, race-linked black athletic superiority and intellectual deficiency[.]” Given the intensity and

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Diana Castaneda-Gameros, Sabi Redwood and Janice L. Thompson

, it is important to know what factors influence their PA behaviors. Previous studies have found important determinants of PA among minority groups living in the United Kingdom (UK), including cultural beliefs. However, they mainly focus on South Asian populations, particularly Indians and Pakistanis

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Jordana Salma, Allyson Jones, Savera Aziz Ali, Bukola Salami and Shelby Yamamoto

in front of kids. (Participant 16, older man) The previous quote points to the role of religious and cultural beliefs, norms, and behaviors in shaping participants’ understanding of acceptable ways to stay active. Also, many older adults were willing to learn new approaches to being active, but

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Jamie Cleland

man-made manufactured risks that include pollution and nuclear power. Of relevance to this article is Beck’s ( 2016 ) reference to how terrorism is another example of manufactured risk because of the motivation to commit terror on fellow humans based on cultural beliefs, history, religion and