Siedentop and Locke (1997) proposed three critical elements that must exist in our profession to make a difference and achieve systemic success in physical education (SSPE): (a) quality PE in the schools, (b) effective physical education teacher education (PETE) programs, and (c) a working relationship between the two. Using Cuban’s (1992) curriculum change and stability framework, this qualitative study examines the existence of a program that has achieved all three elements in the southwestern US. For over three decades some seventy-two teachers in dozens of schools have yearly served over 40,000 children. This study revealed a fully functioning model consisting of four key, interdependent components driven by a system of accountability measures. The results of the SSPE model—quality PE for children—is achieved by (a) district-wide mandated curriculum, methodologies and language, (b) well-defined district PE coordinator roles, (c) a partnership university, and (d) frequent, ongoing professional development. Results of this study strengthen Siedentop and Locke’s (1997) recommendation for collaborative efforts between universities and partner school districts and provide a model to guide and manage the curriculum change process in K-6 PE.
Keven A. Prusak, Todd Pennington, Susan Vincent Graser, Aaron Beighle and Charles F. Morgan
High school physical education programs in South Carolina have undergone a major reform effort which was implemented through extensive staff development called the Physical Education Institute (PEI). How to teach toward student performance indicators became the focus of the in-services. This study identified factors that facilitated or hindered implementing the performance indicators, and examined the extent to which key players from three selected programs of secondary physical education were able to achieve the goals of the reform effort. Data were collected through interviews, document analysis, and videotaping lessons. Results reveal that “lead teachers” facilitated the extent to which programs met the goals of reform. The teaching/coaching role conflict was a main hindrance. Each school and teacher met each of the student performance indicators to varying degrees. Implications include the need for a shared reform, holding teachers and students accountable, and the need for administrators and university faculty to be involved.
Qiao Zhu, Hejun Shen and Ang Chen
The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which practicum teaching could lead to value orientation change of preservice physical education teachers. A group of preservice physical education teachers (N = 28) in China were randomly assigned to practicum-teach either a health-related fitness unit or a traditional sport unit. Their value orientations were measured before and after the practicum teaching. Their middle school learners were tested for knowledge gain. A repeated-measures model shows that the practicum teaching led to little change in their value orientations. The learners in the health-fitness curriculum gained more knowledge than those in the traditional curriculum. The findings suggest that an attempt to influence the value orientation in one practicum teaching experience may not be successful. The findings imply that physical education teacher education training programs may emphasize not only how to teach (via teaching methods courses), but also nurturing the values of teaching to meet the society needs.
Stephen J. Virgilio
The purpose of this article is twofold: to discuss some current problems with curriculum design in physical education, and to offer some suggestions for model-based attempts to assist the process of implementing new curriculums. The process of curriculum implementation can be broken into two phases, the preoperational stage and the operational stage. Several issues within each of the two stages are discussed, for curriculum changes in general and specifically for physical education. The key elements in curriculum implementation are: support (material and human), change strategies, communication channels, staff development, and instructional planning. Each element has its own role to play in the process, and the lack of any single element will severely hinder the efficacy of the changes desired. The final section of the article presents a model of the curriculum change process as outlined in the text.
Judith L. Smith and Dina M. Hayduk
This paper follows a coaching education program at a four-year institution from its inception to NCACE accreditation in 2005 and looks forward to reaccreditation and examines how the program changed to meet the National Standards of Sport Coaches. Along with curriculum changes, the major of the students selecting the coaching program has also changed. Lastly, the attainment of this national accreditation certification has influenced this coaching education program in terms of benefits, challenges, accountability and marketability.
This report analyzes changes in a traditional physical education curriculum in an inner-city high school. The analysis is based on my 14-week participant observation of classes and interviews with a veteran physical educator (Mary) who experienced community and curriculum changes during her 26-year tenure. A written chronological research narrative was examined through a framework that delineates the nature of curriculum discourses and student social capital for schooling. The findings show that the curriculum is failing because negative social changes have denied students’ access to necessary social capital for successful learning. Mary emphasized a curriculum discourse of control based on a belief of dual-responsibility that dichotomizes educational opportunity into responsibility of control for teachers and responsibility of learning for students. A grounded theory developed from the case suggests that the physical education curriculum should emphasize transformation of knowledge and skills, the person, and community culture rather than reproduction of the “official knowledge” (Apple, 1993).
Tania Cassidy, Paul Potrac and Alex McKenzie
The aim of this paper is twofold. The first purpose is to report on participant coaches’ perceptions of a theory-based coach education program (known as the CoDe program). The second purpose is to discuss how we, as coach educators, reflected on the initiation of the CoDe program. In evaluating the coach education program, semistructured interviews were conducted with eight rugby union coaches. Three themes emerged from the interviews: (a) thinking about athletes as learners, (b) focusing on the process of coaching, and (c) the value of talking with other coaches. Fullan’s (1991a) notion of curriculum change frames our discussion of the participant coaches’ evaluations and our reflections on the initiation of the CoDe program.
Olivia Wohlfart, Sandy Adam, Jorge García-Unanue, Gregor Hovemann, Berit Skirstad and Anna-Maria Strittmatter
This study applies “Europeanness” to the analysis of internationalization in the sport management labor market and which changes this trend necessitates for sport management curricula. The authors employed an analysis of 30 semistructured interviews with key informants from Germany, Norway, and Spain. The results reveal various effects of internationalization on the sport sector and highlight the richness and diversity in the three countries. Sport management graduates need to possess a diverse set of competencies for successfully starting their careers. In addition to subject-specific knowledge, generic competencies such as the ability to work in a team, being able to communicate in diverse languages, and having intercultural skills are important. The article discusses knowledge of international sport organizations, their governance, global trends, and intercultural and language competencies, as well as international sport event management as identified themes and proposes specific curriculum changes to promote educational outcomes of sport management programs.
Research A Note from the Editors Deborah Tannehill Bonnie Tjeerdsma Blankenship 10 2002 22 1 3 3 10.1123/jtpe.22.1.3 State-Mandated Curriculum Change in Three High School Physical Education Programs Chris Wirszyla * 10 2002 22 1 4 19 10.1123/jtpe.22.1.4 The Meaning and Organization of
Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko, Erica M. Taylor and T. Gilmour Reeve
core content to justify its curriculum changes. Some of the material included in this article was previously shared in a different form with the academic community in a 2014 Quest publication ( Chodzko-Zajko, 2014 ). The AKA’s position is that agreeing on a core content for kinesiology is not the