Despite dramatic increases in the older adult population, curriculum development in the area of physical activity and aging has been minimal or nonexistent in most physical education departments in higher education. As a consequence, many practitioners leading programs for older adults have had to rely primarily on self-study and on-the-job training for the knowledge and skills they need. The purpose of this paper is to suggest minimum competencies for preparing specialists in the field of physical activity and aging and to recommend corresponding curriculum development. Suggested core offerings for a concentration in physical activity and aging are presented, including specific course content for three specialty courses: physical activity and aging, physical assessment and exercise programming for older adults, and therapeutic exercise for age related chronic conditions. In view of the fact that many departments are faced with declining budgets and program cutbacks, alternative strategies for curricular revision and for integrating gerontological content into the existing physical education curriculum are discussed.
C. Jessie Jones and Roberta E. Rikli
Haichun Sun and Tan Zhang
To state that Catherine Ennis is among the most productive and influential scholars who have devoted their professional lives to advancing theory and practice in curriculum development in physical education is no exaggeration. From the beginning of her career, Ennis advocated for education
Michelle Grenier, Karen Collins, Steven Wright and Catherine Kearns
The purpose of this qualitative study was to assess the effectiveness of a disability sport unit in shaping perceptions of disability. Data from interviews, observations, and documents were collected on 87 elementary-aged students, one physical education teacher, and one teaching intern. Comparisons were drawn between fifth graders engaged in a five-week disability sport unit to fourth graders participating in their standard physical education curriculum. Findings revealed differences in the way fourth and fifth graders came to view individuals with disabilities. The results support an analysis of curriculum development that underscores the significance of the social model in positively impacting constructions of disability. Recommendations include the use of disability sports in physical education as an effective strategy for educating students in game play, knowledge of the Paralympics, and the inclusion of individuals with disabilities in a variety of sporting venues.
Carmen Peiró-Velert, Pere Molina-Alventosa, David Kirk and José Devís-Devís
This paper examines teachers’ use of printed curriculum materials (PCM) during physical education (PE) instruction in Spanish secondary schools and the role they play in the enacted curriculum and in the construction of pedagogical knowledge. Three hundred and ten participants (mean age: 37.7 ± 8.7) responded to an interview-questionnaire on teachers’ pedagogical roles and tasks linked to PCM in PE. Results indicated that while PCM were used very frequently for registering students’ attendance and recording observational notes from lessons, textbooks were less and infrequently used. Both, ‘materials for data registration’ and ‘student textbook’ showed the highest and lowest level of teachers’ satisfaction, respectively. ‘Student diary’ was the PCM used more by female and less experienced teachers than their counterparts, while textbooks were used more by experienced teachers than those with less years of teaching experience. Over fifty percent of teachers considered PCM to be ‘Quite important’ because they facilitate students to study theoretical knowledge, investigate and be creative. The paper discusses the contribution of teachers’ use of PCM to the enacted curriculum and their participation in the social construction of PE knowledge through Bernstein’s theory of pedagogic device. In particular, it indicates that PE teachers are relatively independent from external agencies in curriculum development and participate in the social construction of pedagogical knowledge. Female and less experienced teachers’ use of PCM facilitated students’ participation in the construction of knowledge, which suggests weaker framing of the teaching-learning process..
Stephanie M. Mazerolle, Thomas G. Bowman and Jessica L. Barrett
The commissioners of the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE) and the Board of Directors of the National Athletic Trainers’ Association (NATA) have acted to move the professional degree in athletic training from a bachelor’s degree to a graduate degree. The decision was largely based upon growth of the profession and aligning with the face of healthcare education. Therefore, we wanted to understand the perceived benefits of the graduate model. Using a qualitative paradigm, we electronically interviewed 29 students and faculty members (13 athletic training faculty and program directors, 16 students) currently in Professional Masters Athletic Training Programs (PM ATP). These represented 13 of the 29 (45%) CAATE-accredited PM ATPs. Five themes emerged from the data: (1) engagement and time spent in clinical education allows students to prepare for their roles as athletic trainers, (2) faculty stress the importance of interprofessional education, (3) expecting prior foundational knowledge allows focused education training at the graduate level, (4) increased professional commitment to stay in athletic training rather than use the training/education as a stepping-stone to other career paths, and (5) higher student maturity facilitates deeper learning. Based on these results, the perceived benefits of the PM ATP model are multifactorial.
Melissa Parker, Kevin Patton, Matthew Madden and Christina Sinclair
Despite the benefits associated with teacher development through participation in communities of practice, many questions about these groups remain unanswered. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine a group of elementary physical education teachers as a community of practice whose objective was to develop and disseminate district-wide elementary curriculum. Participants included four teachers, the district curriculum coordinator, and project facilitators. Results identify the importance of a catalyst, a vision for students and the project, the importance of support, the significance of personal and professional relationships, and the realization of empowerment as critical. Ultimately, the development of curriculum was a meaningful, purposeful, and authentic task that allowed the transformation of this group. Adhering to the assumption that learning takes place within social practice, these data provide valuable insight as to the contexts that underlie the ability to mediate change, the relationships between individuals, and their ability to transform individual and group identity.
David A. Pierce and Jeffrey C. Petersen
This educational review provides an overview of the application of experiential learning in the area of sport sales. Insights are provided for sport management academicians that relate to planning and initiating experiential client-based sales projects, and the analysis of the benefits and drawbacks associated with four approaches to lead generation (promotional lead approach, sales table approach, upselling approach, and retention approach), delivery of sales training methods (professor driven, team driven, and practice), and operation of a call center within three distinct frameworks (remote, on-site, or independent). Guidance for project assessment, both during the project and after project completion, is discussed, and the article concludes with a strong connection of the inherent value of such training with the added value of client-based sport sales training to the sport industry.
Darla M. Castelli and Ang Chen
Emerging knowledge of most worth needs to be integrated into the praxis of our discipline through educational reform and intervention. As a curriculum theorist and researcher, Catherine Ennis contributed much knowledge and evidence that can be used to guide future work in curriculum development and
Ang Chen, Bo Shen and Xihe Zhu
A central piece of Catherine Ennis’s legacy is her passion for curriculum intervention research as a viable approach to curriculum development. She constantly reminded physical education scholars and teachers that an efficacious physical education curriculum must be contextualized to benefit