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Marj Moodie, Michelle M. Haby, Boyd Swinburn, and Robert Carter


To assess from a societal perspective the cost-effectiveness of a school program to increase active transport in 10- to 11-year-old Australian children as an obesity prevention measure.


The TravelSMART Schools Curriculum program was modeled nationally for 2001 in terms of its impact on Body Mass Index (BMI) and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) measured against current practice. Cost offsets and DALY benefits were modeled until the eligible cohort reached age 100 or died. The intervention was qualitatively assessed against second stage filter criteria (‘equity,’ ‘strength of evidence,’ ‘acceptability to stakeholders,’ ‘feasibility of implementation,’ ‘sustainability,’ and ‘side-effects’) given their potential impact on funding decisions.


The modeled intervention reached 267,700 children and cost $AUD13.3M (95% uncertainty interval [UI] $6.9M; $22.8M) per year. It resulted in an incremental saving of 890 (95%UI −540; 2,900) BMI units, which translated to 95 (95% UI −40; 230) DALYs and a net cost per DALY saved of $AUD117,000 (95% UI dominated; $1.06M).


The intervention was not cost-effective as an obesity prevention measure under base-run modeling assumptions. The attribution of some costs to nonobesity objectives would be justified given the program’s multiple benefits. Cost-effectiveness would be further improved by considering the wider school community impacts.

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Tristan L. Wallhead and Nikos Ntoumanis

This study looked at the influence of a Sport Education intervention program on students’ motivational responses in a high school physical education setting. Two intact groups were assigned curricular interventions: the Sport Education group (n = 25), which received eight 60-min lessons, and the comparison group (n = 26), which received a traditional teaching approach to sport-based activity. Pre- and postintervention measures of student enjoyment, perceived effort, perceived competence, goal orientations, perceived motivational climate, and perceived autonomy were obtained for both groups. Repeated-measures ANOVAs showed significant increases in student enjoyment and perceived effort in the Sport Education group only. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that increases in task-involving climate and perceived autonomy explained a significant amount of unique variance in the Sport Education students’ postintervention enjoyment, perceived effort, and perceived competence responses. The results suggest that the Sport Education curriculum may increase perceptions of a task-involving climate and perceived autonomy, and in so doing, enhance the motivation of high school students toward physical education.

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Jeffrey D. Coelho

Written critical incidents were collected from students (n = 236) to investigate their perceptions of physical education at the United States Military Academy. Fourteen students were interviewed to provide perceptions beyond the confines of a specific incident. The data were classified into three themes: (a) teacher and teacher behaviors; (b) curriculum, program features, and subject matter; and (c) social interaction and behaviors of students. Within the first theme, encouragement, additional instruction, and demonstrations were the most frequently perceived positive influences. Inappropriate grading, public embarrassment, and adversarial relationships between teachers and students were the most frequently perceived negative influences. The positive influences within the curriculum theme were overcoming fear, relevance, and challenge. The negative influences were unfair grading standards, irrelevant content, and injury. Support and encouragement, acceptance, and effective leadership were the top ranked positive perceptions within the third theme. Poor leadership and lack of sportsmanship were associated with negative perceptions.

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Michelle E. Jordan, Kent Lorenz, Michalis Stylianou, and Pamela Hodges Kulinna

activity during school (e.g., physical activity breaks in the classroom), staff involvement (all staff were involved during wellness weeks), and family and community involvement (families were invited to schools for several of the wellness week activities). The Fitness for Life Elementary Curriculum

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Darla M. Castelli and Ang Chen

make programmatic modifications because applying complex concepts in undefined environments has the highest potential for social change ( Patton, 2010 ). Unlike a traditional RCT that might take years to enact and then influence curriculum, programming, and behaviors, a developmental evaluation

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Lyndsay M.C. Hayhurst, Lisa McIntosh Sundstrom, and Emma Arksey

acknowledge various “pieces” of the global gender-focused SDP work being conducted by their regional and local partners in the field (such as the RNGO—and, by association—the LNGO). Specifically, through the INGO’s Curriculum, program partners take up terms such as “life skills”, “economic empowerment” and

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Clayton R. Kuklick and Brian T. Gearity

inform their disciplinary techniques ( Mills & Denison, 2016 ; Mills et al., 2022 ). Accordingly, there have been calls from coaching scholars for Foucauldian-inspired coach development curriculums, programs, and strategies to help coaches change their practices toward producing less disciplinary

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Robin J. Dunn and Sarah A. Doolittle

curriculum, programs, and policies with SEL outcomes is beneficial to the community ( Escartí et al., 2016 ; Gordon & Doyle, 2015 ; Ivy et al., 2018 ; Lee & Choi, 2015 ; Richards & Gordon, 2017 ). In addition to SEL instruction in schools, scholars and teachers needed to better understand youth’s ability

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Hans van der Mars, Hal A. Lawson, Murray Mitchell, and Phillip Ward

require sufficient district oversight to ensure faithful implementation of said curriculum program. Mindful of variability among districts and schools, monitoring implementation fidelity is a huge undertaking, and it is resource intensive. Perhaps this is why there are few examples where this rigorous

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Deborah S. Baxter and Oleg A. Sinelnikov

curriculum program already set in place. For example, some of the concerns include negative impact of edTPA on contemporary models-based practice in physical education and the structure of edTPA policy. Metzler contends that the edTPA expectations represented by the evaluation rubrics may lead PETE