, Leibold, & Probst, 2002 ). Sports clubs could benefit from using CKM to better serve their members and increase sports consumption. In the context of nonprofit sports clubs (NPSCs), CKM is particularly relevant due to a strong customer orientation ( Lang, Ströbel, & Nagel, 2019 ). The customer
Mohsen Behnam, Mikihiro Sato, Bradley J. Baker, Vahid Delshab, and Mathieu Winand
Anton Behrens, Yanxiang Yang, and Sebastian Uhrich
branding strategies shows that adaptations to foreign markets can increase perceptions of customer orientation, which refers to the brand’s perceived efforts to focus on, think about, and understand customers ( De Waal & van der Heijden, 2016 ). Moreover, adaptations can flatter consumers and improve the
W. James Weese
This descriptive research study was conducted to investigate the concepts of transformational leadership and organizational culture within the administrative levels of campus recreation programs of Big Ten and Mid-American Conference universities. While transformational leadership was quantitatively measured by the Leadership Behavior Questionnaire (LBQ), the Culture Strength Assessment (CSA) and Culture Building Activities (CBA) instruments provided two quantitative measures of organizational culture. Qualitative data were also collected and analyzed to enrich and cross validate the findings. The researcher concluded that high transformational leaders direct programs that (a) possess stronger organizational cultures and (b) carry out culture-building activities, specifically the “customer orientation” function, to a greater extent than other leaders do. An interaction effect between leadership and conference was uncovered for this variable. No significant difference was uncovered between the high and low leadership groups relative to the penetration of culture throughout the top four hierarchical levels of the organization.
Mike Wallace and W. James Weese
This study was undertaken to investigate the links between transformational leadership, organizational culture, and employee job satisfaction within the 69 Canadian YMCA organizations. Leadership was measured by the Leadership Behavior Questionnaire (Sashkin, 1988), organizational culture by the Organizational Culture Assessment Questionnaire (Sashkin, 1990), and employee job satisfaction by the Job in General Index (Balzer & Smith, 1990). The results of a MÁNOVA and subsequent ANOVA statistical treatments allowed the researchers to conclude that significant differences in organizational culture existed between the YMCA organizations led by high transformational leaders and YMCA organizations led by low transformational leaders. In addition, the YMCA organizations led by high transformational leaders administered organizations that carried out the culture-building activities of managing change, achieving goals, coordinated teamwork, and customer orientation to a greater degree than YMCA organizations led by low transformational leaders. No significant differences in employee job satisfaction levels existed between the YMCA organizations led by high transformational leaders and those led by low transformational leaders.
Gashaw Abeza, Norm O’Reilly, and Jessica R. Braunstein-Minkove
customer experience management, customer value management, customer focus marketing, customer orientation marketing, customer centricity marketing ( Peppers & Rogers, 2016 ), symbiotic marketing, strategic alliance, co-marketing alliance ( Morgan & Hunt, 1994 ), one-on-one marketing, individualized
Gashaw Abeza, David Finch, Norm O’Reilly, Eric MacIntosh, and John Nadeau
, experiential marketing, interactive marketing, database marketing, one-on-one marketing, individualized marketing, customer intimacy, customer experience management, customer value management, customer focus marketing, customer orientation marketing, and customer centricity marketing. The keywords were
Yong Jae Ko, Yonghwan Chang, Wonseok Jang, Michael Sagas, and John Otto Spengler
Behavior, 37 , 99 – 116 . doi: 10.1002/j.2162-6057.2003.tb00828.x 10.1002/j.2162-6057.2003.tb00828.x Donavan , D.T. , Brown , T.J. , & Mowen , J.C. ( 2004 ). Internal benefits of service-worker customer orientation: Job satisfaction, commitment, and organizational citizenship behaviors . Journal