speed V ˙ O 2 kinetics and improve exercise performance. 6 – 19 We recently showed that, compared with an unprimed, self-paced control trial, an all-out pacing strategy does not improve 1-km cycling performance more than priming alone 20 despite the fact that this pacing strategy is considered
Kirsty Brock, Prokopios Antonellis, Matthew I. Black, Fred J. DiMenna, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M. Jones, and Stephen J. Bailey
Joseph A. McQuillan, Julia R. Casadio, Deborah K. Dulson, Paul B. Laursen, and Andrew E. Kilding
ergogenic potential of NO 3 − in the heat. Conclusions This is the first investigation to report on the thermoregulatory, perceptual, and ergogenic effects of NO 3 − supplementation on maximal-intensity cycling performance in a hot environment in well-trained athletes. Relative to placebo, daily NO 3
Mark Glaister, Colin Towey, Owen Jeffries, Daniel Muniz-Pumares, Paul Foley, and Gillian McInnes
PPO is generally reported to be around 1.0 to 1.25 N·m·kg −1 . 10 , 11 , 13 , 14 Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of torque factor and sprint duration on the ergogenic effects of caffeine on sprint cycling performance. Methods Participants A total of 13 recreationally
Naroa Etxebarria, Megan L. Ross, Brad Clark, and Louise M. Burke
been shown to enhance capacity for short-term maximal cycling performance by 2.5% to 4%. 4 The activation of bitter taste receptors in the oral cavity and upper gastrointestinal tract appears to increase corticomotor excitability 5 and, in turn, improve cycling efforts requiring maximal effort
Naroa Etxebarria, Brad Clark, Megan L. Ross, Timothy Hui, Roland Goecke, Ben Rattray, and Louise M. Burke
, quinine has been shown to enhance short-term (∼30 s) maximal cycling performance by 2.5−4% ( Gam et al., 2014 ) and to have a short-lived positive effect during the initial part of a 3,000-m cycling time trial (TT) when ingested prior to the effort ( Etxebarria et al., 2019 ). In the latter study, quinine
Madison Taylor, Nicki Almquist, Bent Rønnestad, Arnt Erik Tjønna, Morten Kristoffersen, Matt Spencer, Øyvind Sandbakk, and Knut Skovereng
physiological decline during the transition period and were unable to improve their endurance performance in the subsequent PREP. In addition, Mallol et al 9 showed that a 4-week HIT intervention could improve maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) and maintain cycling performance in a group of trained triathletes
Rory Warnock, Owen Jeffries, Stephen Patterson, and Mark Waldron
repeated (×3) Wingate cycling performance and associated physiological responses. It was hypothesized that all conditions would enhance performance compared to placebo but that the combined properties of caffeine and taurine would lead to an improved performance and reduced CV response during the
Pete Lindsay, Ian Maynard, and Owen Thomas
Using a single-subject multiple baseline design, combined with assessments of participants’ internal experience (Wollman, 1986), the efficacy of a hypnotic intervention on flow state and competitive cycling performance was assessed in three elite cyclists. Intervention involved relaxation, imagery, hypnotic induction, hypnotic regression, and the conditioning of an unconscious trigger associated with the emotions of past peak performance. Ecologically valid performance measures were collected from British Cycling Federation (BCF) races, and the intensity of flow was assessed using Jackson and Marsh’s (1996) Flow State Scale (FSS). Results indicated that the number of BCF points gained per race was positively influenced in one participant, sporadically influenced in the second participant, and not influenced in the third participant. FSS scores during the intervention phase increased for one participant. These findings suggest that hypnotic interventions may improve elite competitive cycling performance and increase the feelings and cognitions associated with flow.
Edwin Chong, Kym J. Guelfi, and Paul A. Fournier
This study investigated whether combined ingestion and mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution could improve maximal sprint cycling performance. Twelve competitive male cyclists ingested 100 ml of one of the following solutions 20 min before exercise in a randomized double-blinded counterbalanced order (a) 10% glucose solution, (b) 0.05% aspartame solution, (c) 9.0% maltodextrin solution, or (d) water as a control. Fifteen min after ingestion, repeated mouth rinsing was carried out with 11 × 15 ml bolus doses of the same solution at 30-s intervals. Each participant then performed a 45-s maximal sprint effort on a cycle ergometer. Peak power output was significantly higher in response to the glucose trial (1188 ± 166 W) compared with the water (1036 ± 177 W), aspartame (1088 ± 128 W) and maltodextrin (1024 ± 202W) trials by 14.7 ± 10.6, 9.2 ± 4.6 and 16.0 ± 6.0% respectively (p < .05). Mean power output during the sprint was significantly higher in the glucose trial compared with maltodextrin (p < .05) and also tended to be higher than the water trial (p = .075). Glucose and maltodextrin resulted in a similar increase in blood glucose, and the responses of blood lactate and pH to sprinting did not differ significantly between treatments (p > .05). These findings suggest that combining the ingestion of glucose with glucose mouth rinsing improves maximal sprint performance. This ergogenic effect is unlikely to be related to changes in blood glucose, sweetness, or energy sensing mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract.
Nathan T. Jenkins, Jennifer L. Trilk, Arpit Singhal, Patrick J. O’Connor, and Kirk J. Cureton
The purpose of this experiment was to learn whether low doses of caffeine have ergogenic, perceptual, and metabolic effects during cycling. To determine the effects of 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg caffeine on cycling performance, differentiated ratings of perceived exertion (D-RPE), quadriceps pain intensity, and metabolic responses to cycling exercise, 13 cyclists exercised on a stationary ergometer for 15 min at 80% VO2peak, then, after 4 min of active recovery, completed a 15-min performance ride 60 min after ingesting caffeine or placebo. Work done (kJ/kg) during the performance ride was used as a measure of performance. D-RPE, pain ratings, and expired-gas data were obtained every 3 min, and blood lactate concentrations were obtained at 15 and 30 min. Compared with placebo, caffeine doses of 2 and 3 mg/kg increased performance by 4% (95% CI: 1.0–6.8%, p = .02) and 3% (95% CI: –0.4% to 6.8%, p = .077), respectively. These effects were ergogenic, on average, but varied considerably in magnitude among individual cyclists. There were no effects of caffeine on D-RPE or pain throughout the cycling task. Selected metabolic variables were affected by caffeine, consistent with its known actions. The authors conclude that caffeine preparations of 2 and 3 mg/kg enhanced performance, but future work should aim to explain the considerable interindividual variability of the drug’s ergogenic properties.