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Jeremiah J. Peiffer, Chris R. Abbiss, Eric C. Haakonssen and Paolo Menaspà

from male cyclists to their female counterparts. For instance, lower whole-body muscle mass 16 has been observed in female compared with male athletes, which can influence peak power output, 17 whereas a slower rate of force production during a maximal sprint, irrespective of muscle mass, has been

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Paul F.J. Merkes, Paolo Menaspà and Chris R. Abbiss

mass-sprint finish. To date, road cycling sprints have not been extensively examined. 1 – 5 It appears that to be competitive in a sprint, male cyclists are required to produce high peak power outputs (eg, 13.9–20.0 W·kg −1 , 4 989–1443 W 1 , 4 ) over durations of approximately 9 to 17 seconds. 1 , 4

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Kathryn E. Phillips and Will G. Hopkins

“Skills and tactics play a much greater role in bicycle racing than is generally thought by those outside the sport . . . even a well conditioned cyclist will not win if she can’t employ a good racing strategy, execute timely tactics and have highly developed bike-handling skills and techniques.” 1

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Jose A. Rodríguez-Marroyo, José G. Villa, Raúl Pernía and Carl Foster

Different studies 1 – 7 have informed us of the extraordinary physiological characteristics of professional cyclists. Successful riders are characterized by high oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) (70–85 ml·kg −1 ·min −1 ) 1 – 6 and power output, between 400 W to 550 W (ie, 6.0–7.5 W·kg −1 ) during ramp

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Ana B. Peinado, Nuria Romero-Parra, Miguel A. Rojo-Tirado, Rocío Cupeiro, Javier Butragueño, Eliane A. Castro, Francisco J. Calderón and Pedro J. Benito

Road cycling is a highly demanding sport where cyclists’ overall performance is dependent on physiological responses and team strategies. 1 Previous studies have already described the physiology of professional road cycling 2 , 3 during the most prestigious 3-week competition races (Tour de

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Teun van Erp, Dajo Sanders and Jos J. de Koning

intensity characteristics of cyclist’s training and racing widely accessible. In addition, applied and descriptive studies are now published describing the load and intensity characteristics of professional cycling. 1 – 5 However, the main focus of the research published is on the load and intensity

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Ryan G. Overmayer and Matthew W. Driller

/or subsequent performance. Although ISPC has been examined in cycling settings, studies have failed to examine these effects in trained cyclists, limiting the ecological validity of their results. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine the impact of ISPC on trained cyclists, when implemented between a

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Thomas M. Doering, James W. Fell, Michael D. Leveritt, Ben Desbrow and Cecilia M. Shing

The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute caffeine exposure via mouth-rinse improved endurance cycling time-trial performance in well-trained cyclists. It was hypothesized that caffeine exposure at the mouth would enhance endurance cycling time-trial performance. Ten well-trained male cyclists (mean± SD: 32.9 ± 7.5 years, 74.7 ± 5.3kg, 176.8 ± 5.1cm, VO2peak = 59.8 ± 3.5ml·kg–1·min–1) completed two experimental timetrials following 24 hr of dietary and exercise standardization. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design was employed whereby cyclists completed a time-trial in the fastest time possible, which was equivalent work to cycling at 75% of peak aerobic power output for 60 min. Cyclists were administered 25ml mouth-rinses for 10 s containing either placebo or 35mg of anhydrous caffeine eight times throughout the time-trial. Perceptual and physiological variables were recorded throughout. No significant improvement in time-trial performance was observed with caffeine (3918 ± 243s) compared with placebo mouth-rinse (3940 ± 227s). No elevation in plasma caffeine was detected due to the mouth-rinse conditions. Caffeine mouth-rinse had no significant effect on rating of perceived exertion, heart rate, rate of oxygen consumption or blood lactate concentration. Eight exposures of a 35 mg dose of caffeine at the buccal cavity for 10s does not significantly enhance endurance cycling time-trial performance, nor does it elevate plasma caffeine concentration.

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Jose A. Rodríguez-Marroyo, Raúl Pernía, José G. Villa and Carl Foster

The V ˙ O 2 max , together with efficiency/economy and the fractional utilization of the aerobic capacity, are the main parameters of aerobic performance. 1 However, V ˙ O 2 max is not sensitive to changes induced by training when cyclists start with high values, 2 , 3 as with professional

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Lieselot Decroix, Robert P. Lamberts and Romain Meeusen

During training camps, cyclists aim to optimize their training status by increasing training load, which is followed by a short but still sufficient recovery period. 1 Although this method is effective to increase performance, it also holds the risk of disturbing the balance between training load