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Kathryn E. Phillips and Will G. Hopkins

“Skills and tactics play a much greater role in bicycle racing than is generally thought by those outside the sport . . . even a well conditioned cyclist will not win if she can’t employ a good racing strategy, execute timely tactics and have highly developed bike-handling skills and techniques.” 1

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Jose A. Rodríguez-Marroyo, José G. Villa, Raúl Pernía and Carl Foster

Different studies 1 – 7 have informed us of the extraordinary physiological characteristics of professional cyclists. Successful riders are characterized by high oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) (70–85 ml·kg −1 ·min −1 ) 1 – 6 and power output, between 400 W to 550 W (ie, 6.0–7.5 W·kg −1 ) during ramp

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Ana B. Peinado, Nuria Romero-Parra, Miguel A. Rojo-Tirado, Rocío Cupeiro, Javier Butragueño, Eliane A. Castro, Francisco J. Calderón and Pedro J. Benito

Road cycling is a highly demanding sport where cyclists’ overall performance is dependent on physiological responses and team strategies. 1 Previous studies have already described the physiology of professional road cycling 2 , 3 during the most prestigious 3-week competition races (Tour de

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John H. Challis, Chloe Murdoch and Samantha L. Winter

The purpose of this study was to compare the heel pad mechanical properties of runners, who repetitively load the heel pad during training, with cyclists who do not load their heel pads during training. Ten competitive long distance runners and 10 competitive cyclists volunteered for this study. The thickness of the unloaded heel pad was measured using realtime B-mode ultrasonography. A heel pad indentation device was used to measure the mechanical properties of the heel pads. To evaluate the differences between the two groups, in heel pad properties, a repeat measures analysis of variance was used (p < .05). Heel pad thickness was not different between groups when normalized with respect to subject height. There was no significant difference between the groups in percentage energy loss during loading and unloading (runners: 61.4% ± 8.6; cyclists: 62.5% ± 4.6). Heel pad stiffness for the runners was statistically significantly less than that of the cyclists (p = .0018; runners: 17.1 N·mm−1 ± 3.0; cyclists: 20.4 N·mm−1 ± 4.0). These results indicate that the nature of the activity undertaken by individuals may influence their heel pad properties. This finding may be important when considering differences in heel pad properties between different populations.

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Andrew D. Williams, Isaac Selva Raj, Kristie L. Stucas, James W. Fell, Diana Dickenson and John R. Gregory


Uncoupled cycling cranks are designed to remove the ability of one leg to assist the other during the cycling action. It has been suggested that training with this type of crank can increase mechanical efficiency. However, whether these improvements can confer performance enhancement in already well-trained cyclists has not been reported.


Fourteen well-trained cyclists (13 males, 1 female; 32.4 ± 8.8 y; 74.5 ± 10.3 kg; Vo2max 60.6 ± 5.5 mL·kg−1·min−1; mean ± SD) participated in this study. Participants were randomized to training on a stationary bicycle using either an uncoupled (n = 7) or traditional crank (n = 7) system. Training involved 1-h sessions, 3 days per week for 6 weeks, and at a heart rate equivalent to 70% of peak power output (PPO) substituted into the training schedule in place of other training. Vo2max, lactate threshold, gross efficiency, and cycling performance were measured before and following the training intervention. Pre- and post testing was conducted using traditional cranks.


No differences were observed between the groups for changes in Vo2max, lactate threshold, gross efficiency, or average power maintained during a 30-minute time trial.


Our results indicate that 6 weeks (18 sessions) of training using an uncoupled crank system does not result in changes in any physiological or performance measures in well-trained cyclists.

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Teun van Erp, Dajo Sanders and Jos J. de Koning

intensity characteristics of cyclist’s training and racing widely accessible. In addition, applied and descriptive studies are now published describing the load and intensity characteristics of professional cycling. 1 – 5 However, the main focus of the research published is on the load and intensity

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Ryan G. Overmayer and Matthew W. Driller

/or subsequent performance. Although ISPC has been examined in cycling settings, studies have failed to examine these effects in trained cyclists, limiting the ecological validity of their results. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine the impact of ISPC on trained cyclists, when implemented between a

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Jose A. Rodríguez-Marroyo, Raúl Pernía, José G. Villa and Carl Foster

The V ˙ O 2 max , together with efficiency/economy and the fractional utilization of the aerobic capacity, are the main parameters of aerobic performance. 1 However, V ˙ O 2 max is not sensitive to changes induced by training when cyclists start with high values, 2 , 3 as with professional

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Lieselot Decroix, Robert P. Lamberts and Romain Meeusen

During training camps, cyclists aim to optimize their training status by increasing training load, which is followed by a short but still sufficient recovery period. 1 Although this method is effective to increase performance, it also holds the risk of disturbing the balance between training load

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Ida A. Heikura, Marc Quod, Nicki Strobel, Roger Palfreeman, Rita Civil and Louise M. Burke

Historically, professional road cyclists have been defined by their lean physiques and high aerobic capacity. 1 Morphological differences exist between different cyclists that usually dictate the main specialty of each cyclist in the racing environment (or vice versa); flat-terrain specialists and