, 2015 ), these perceptions likely in part mediate the relationships between leadership, management, and performance outcomes. Grounded in bright and dark trait leadership theory ( Judge, Piccolo, & Kosalka, 2009 ) and followership theory ( Uhl-Bien, Riggo, Lowe, & Carsten, 2014 ), the objectives of this
Rachel Arnold, David Fletcher and Jennifer A. Hobson
Peter G. Mewett and John Perry
Professional running, derived from 19th century pedestrianism, is a gambling sport mostly confined to working men. Runners compete for prize money and, particularly, in the hope that they will win races as “dark horses” which should ensure substantial winnings from the betting ring. This sport involves handicapping athletes to level ability differences between them and, in theory, gives each competitor an equal chance of winning. Competitors conceal their true potential and lose races, however, with the dual objectives of acquiring favorable handicaps, thereby increasing their chances of success in their targeted events and getting favorable odds from the bookmakers. People in the sport use numerous tactics of secrecy and deception to reduce the risk of discovery of their dark horse prospects. A case study of a runner is presented to demonstrate the processes involved in the use of the “dark horse” strategy to win a major race.
By Eddie Dominguez. Published 2018 by Hachette Books , New York, NY. 294 pp. ISBN: 978031648397 In Baseball Cop: The Dark Side of America’s National Pastime, author Eddie Dominguez provides a case study of crisis communication and postscandal corrective action in modern American sport. Dominguez
Benjamin D. Jones, Tim Woodman, Matthew Barlow and Ross Roberts
Despite a plethora of research on moral disengagement and antisocial behavior, there is a dearth of literature that explores personality in the context of these undesirable attitudes and behaviors. We provide the first examination of personality, specifically narcissism, as a predictor of moral disengagement and antisocial behavior in sport. Given that narcissism is negatively related to empathy and positively related to feelings of entitlement, it is more likely for narcissists to disengage morally and to behave antisocially. We thus hypothesized that narcissism would predict antisocial behavior via moral disengagement. Across 12 team contact sports (n = 272), bootstrapped mediation analyses confirmed this indirect effect, which remained significant when controlling for motivational climate, social desirability, sex and sport type. Coaches and practitioners would do well to consider the darker side of personality in targeting moral disengagement and its behavioral consequences in team sports.
Kimberley J. Bartholomew, Nikos Ntoumanis, Richard M. Ryan and Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani
Research in self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002) has shown that satisfaction of autonomy, competence, and relatedness needs in sport contexts is associated with enhanced engagement, performance, and well-being. This article outlines the initial development of a multidimensional measure designed to assess psychological need thwarting, an under-studied area of conceptual and practical importance. Study 1 generated a pool of items designed to tap the negative experiential state that occurs when athletes perceive their needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness to be actively undermined. Study 2 tested the factorial structure of the questionnaire using confirmatory factor analysis. The supported model comprised 3 factors, which represented the hypothesized interrelated dimensions of need thwarting. The model was refined and cross-validated using an independent sample in Study 3. Overall, the psychological need thwarting scale (PNTS) demonstrated good content, factorial, and predictive validity, as well as internal consistency and invariance across gender, sport type, competitive level, and competitive experience. The conceptualization of psychological need thwarting is discussed, and suggestions are made regarding the use of the PNTS in research pertaining to the darker side of sport participation.
Judith Allgrove, Emily Farrell, Michael Gleeson, Gary Williamson and Karen Cooper
This study investigated the effects of regular consumption of dark chocolate (DC), rich in cocoa polyphenols, on plasma metabolites, hormones, and markers of oxidative stress after prolonged exhaustive exercise. Twenty active men cycled at 60% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) for 1.5 hr, with the intensity increased to 90% VO2max for a 30-s period every 10 min, followed by a ride to exhaustion at 90% VO2max. In the 2 wk before exercise participants consumed 40 g of DC or an isocarbohydrate-fat control cocoa liquor–free chocolate (CON) twice daily and once 2 hr before exercise in a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover design. Venous blood samples were taken immediately before exercise, postexercise (fixed duration), postexhaustion, and after 1 hr of recovery. F2-isoprostanes were significantly lower (post hoc tests: p < .001) at exhaustion and after 1 hr of recovery with DC. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins were significantly lower with DC (p < .001) both before and after exercise and at exhaustion. DC was also associated with ~21% greater rises in free fatty acids during exercise (main effect: p < .05). Changes in circulating glucose, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, and interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-1ra were unaffected by treatment. Time to exhaustion at 90% VO2max was not significantly different between trials (398 ± 204 and 374 ± 194 s for DC and CON, respectively). These results suggest that regular DC intake is associated with reduced oxidative-stress markers and increased mobilization of free fatty acids after exercise but has no observed effect on exercise performance.
Geoffrey D. Broadhead
Dennis-Peter Born, Billy Sperlich and Hans-Christer Holmberg
To assess original research addressing the effect of the application of compression clothing on sport performance and recovery after exercise, a computer-based literature research was performed in July 2011 using the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science. Studies examining the effect of compression clothing on endurance, strength and power, motor control, and physiological, psychological, and biomechanical parameters during or after exercise were included, and means and measures of variability of the outcome measures were recorded to estimate the effect size (Hedges g) and associated 95% confidence intervals for comparisons of experimental (compression) and control trials (noncompression). The characteristics of the compression clothing, participants, and study design were also extracted. The original research from peer-reviewed journals was examined using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) Scale. Results indicated small effect sizes for the application of compression clothing during exercise for shortduration sprints (10–60 m), vertical-jump height, extending time to exhaustion (such as running at VO2max or during incremental tests), and time-trial performance (3–60 min). When compression clothing was applied for recovery purposes after exercise, small to moderate effect sizes were observed in recovery of maximal strength and power, especially vertical-jump exercise; reductions in muscle swelling and perceived muscle pain; blood lactate removal; and increases in body temperature. These results suggest that the application of compression clothing may assist athletic performance and recovery in given situations with consideration of the effects magnitude and practical relevance.
Sarah Partington, Elizabeth Partington and Steve Olivier
Flow has been described within sport psychology as an optimal state underpinning peak performance. However, the consequences of experiencing flow may not always be beneficial. One negative consequence might be that of contributing to dependence on the activity that interacts with, or is associated with, the flow experience. This study explored the dichotomous consequences of flow, using case studies of big wave surfers. Fifteen elite surfers completed in-depth, semistructured interviews. It seems clear from the results that the surfers experienced positive consequences of flow. However, they also exhibited symptoms of dependence on surfing. It is suggested that there may be an association between the experience of dimensions of flow and the compulsion to engage in an activity. Some specific recommendations for further research into the relationship between flow and exercise dependence are made.
David P. French, Catherine D. Darker, Frank F. Eves and Falko F. Sniehotta
The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) has been extensively used in predictive studies, but there have been considerably fewer experimental tests of the theory. One reason for this is that the guidance on developing concrete intervention strategies from the abstract theory is vague, and there are few exemplars of how to do this. The aim of this article is to provide such an exemplar. The development of an intervention to increase walking in the general public is described, based on the TPB, extended to include postvolitional processes. Identification of target constructs, elicitation of key salient beliefs underpinning these constructs, selection of appropriate behavior change techniques, and technique refinement. Each step is based on available evidence and consistent with theory. Perceived behavioral control (PBC) was identified as the key determinant of walking intentions, with an “intention-behavior gap” noted. A brief intervention was developed, using techniques to increase PBC by rehearsal of previous successful performance of behavior, along with planning techniques to translate motivation into behavior. This systematic approach taken should provide a model for others. The intervention has demonstrated efficacy in producing large changes in objectively measured walking behavior, in 2 separate evaluations reported elsewhere.