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Christopher Kuenze, Moataz Eltouhky, Abbey Thomas, Mark Sutherlin, and Joseph Hart

Context:

Collecting torque data using a multimode dynamometer is common in sports-medicine research. The error in torque measurements across multiple sites and dynamometers has not been established.

Objective:

To assess the validity of 2 calibration protocols across 3 dynamometers and the error associated with torque measurement for each system.

Design:

Observational study.

Setting:

3 university laboratories at separate institutions.

Equipment:

2 Biodex System 3 dynamometers and 1 Biodex System 4 dynamometer.

Interventions:

System calibration was completed using the manufacturer-recommended single-weight method and an experimental calibration method using a series of progressive weights. Both calibration methods were compared with a manually calculated theoretical torque across a range of applied weights.

Main Outcome Measures:

Relative error, absolute error, and percent error were calculated at each weight. Each outcome variable was compared between systems using 95% confidence intervals across low (0–65 Nm), moderate (66–110 Nm), and high (111–165 Nm) torque categorizations.

Results:

Calibration coefficients were established for each system using both calibration protocols. However, within each system the calibration coefficients generated using the single-weight (System 4 = 2.42 [0.90], System 3a = 1.37 [1.11], System 3b = –0.96 [1.45]) and experimental calibration protocols (System 4 = 3.95 [1.08], System 3a = –0.79 [1.23], System 3b = 2.31 [1.66]) were similar and displayed acceptable mean relative error compared with calculated theoretical torque values. Overall, percent error was greatest for all 3 systems in low-torque conditions (System 4 = 11.66% [6.39], System 3a = 6.82% [11.98], System 3b = 4.35% [9.49]). The System 4 significantly overestimated torque across all 3 weight increments, and the System 3b overestimated torque over the moderate-torque increment.

Conclusions:

Conversion of raw voltage to torque values using the single-calibration-weight method is valid and comparable to a more complex multiweight calibration process; however, it is clear that calibration must be done for each individual system to ensure accurate data collection.

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Danielle R. Madden, Chun Nok Lam, Brian Redline, Eldin Dzubur, Harmony Rhoades, Stephen S. Intille, Genevieve F. Dunton, and Benjamin Henwood

, 2006 ) and thus issues accurately recalling past behaviors. Although momentary data collection methods have been employed in studies with nonclinical samples ( Dunton et al., 2012 ; Liao et al., 2015 ), to the best of our knowledge, there have been no attempts to date to explore the bidirectional

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Alanna Weisberg, Alexandre Monte Campelo, Tanzeel Bhaidani, and Larry Katz

and, if necessary, update software. An alternative solution to collecting and consolidating the data is to employ an API, which assists with data collection visualization and synthesis ( Henriksen et al., 2018 ). It is important, however, to ensure that the API is well documented, public, and

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Carla Cristiane Silva, Maurizio Bertollo, Felipe Fossati Reichert, Daniel Alexandre Boullosa, and Fábio Yuzo Nakamura

Purpose:

To examine which body position and indices present better reliability of heart rate variability (HRV) measures in children and to compare the HRV analyzed in different body positions between sexes.

Method:

Twenty eutrophic prepubertal children of each sex participated in the study. The RR intervals were recorded using a portable heart rate monitor twice a day for 7 min in the supine, sitting, and standing positions. The reproducibility was analyzed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; two way mixed) and within-subject coefficient of variation (CV).Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to compare the sexes.

Results:

High levels of reproducibility were indicated by higher ICC in the root-mean-square difference of successive normal RR intervals (RMSSD: 0.93 and 0.94) and Poincaré plot of the short-term RR interval variability (SD1: 0.92 and 0.94) parameters for boys and girls, respectively, in the supine position. The ICCs were lower in the sitting and standing positions for all HRV indices. In addition, the girls presented significantly higher values than the boys for SDNN and absolute high frequency (HF; p < .05) in the supine position.

Conclusions:

The supine position is the most reproducible for the HRV indices in both sexes, especially the vagal related indices.

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Jason S. Scibek and Christopher R. Carcia

The purpose of our study was to establish criterion-related validity and repeatability of a shoulder biomechanics testing protocol involving an electromagnetic tracking system (Flock of Birds [FoB]). Eleven subjects completed humeral elevation tasks in the sagittal, scapular, and frontal planes on two occasions. Shoulder kinematics were assessed with a digital inclinometer and the FoB. Intrasession and intersession repeatability for orthopedic angles, and humeral and scapular kinematics ranged from moderate to excellent. Correlation analyses revealed strong relationships between inclinometer and FoB measures of humeral motion, yet considerable mean differences were noted between the measurement devices. Our results validate use of the FoB for measuring humeral kinematics and establish our testing protocol as reliable. We must continue to consider factors that can impact system accuracy and the effects they may have on kinematic descriptions and how data are reported.

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Terry Boyle, Jane Heyworth, Fiona C. Bull, and Lin Fritschi

Background:

One of the convenient ways to achieve recommended levels of physical activity is through ‘active transport,’ such as walking or cycling to and from work or school. Although studies have shown that participants can reliably recall information about recent transport-related physical activity, it is not known if the reliability remains high when asking about lifetime behavior. This study tested the reliability of questions that collect information about transport-related physical activity performed over the lifetime.

Methods:

Participants were asked to complete self-administered questions about transport-related physical activity on 2 separate occasions. The questions asked about cycling and walking to and from work and/or school during 3 age periods: 15−24 years, 25−39 years, and 40 years and above. A lifetime average was also calculated for cycling, walking, and total activity.

Results:

There was fair to good test-retest reliability of the age-period specific questions for transport-related cycling (ICCs from 0.65−0.74), walking (ICCs from 0.44−0.58), and total activity (ICCs from 0.57−0.66). The reliability of the lifetime averages were also fair to good (ICCs from 0.58−0.70).

Conclusions:

The questions tested in this study have moderate reliability, and appear to be useful questions for measuring lifetime transport-related physical activity.

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Sarah J. Fraser, Justin J. Chapman, Wendy J. Brown, Harvey A. Whiteford, and Nicola W. Burton

Background:

The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using questionnaires and accelerometers to measure physical activity and sedentary behavior among inpatient adults with mental illness.

Methods:

Participants completed a physical activity and sitting time questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for 7 consecutive days. Feasibility was assessed in terms of participant engagement, self-reported ease/difficulty of completing study components, extreme self-report data values and adherence to accelerometer wear time criteria. Ease/difficulty ratings were examined by level of distress.

Results:

177 inpatients were invited to the study, 101 completed the questionnaires and 36 provided valid accelerometry data. Participants found it more difficult to complete sitting time and physical activity questionnaires than to wear the accelerometer during waking hours (z = 3.787, P < .001; z = 2.824, P = .005 respectively). No significant differences were found in ease/difficulty ratings by level of distress for any of the study components. Extreme values for self-reported sitting time were identified in 27% of participants.

Conclusion:

Inpatient adults with mental illness can engage with self-report and objective methods of measuring physical activity and sedentary behavior. They were initially less willing to participate in objective measurement, which may however be more feasible than self-report measures.