, & Urgesi, 2008 ). Therefore, disguising the relative motion of an action may disguise the intentions of an athlete and reduce the advantage afforded by these well-developed perceptual-cognitive skills to chance levels. In two experiments, we examine differences between the effects that deception and
Nicholas J. Smeeton, Matyas Varga, Joe Causer and A. Mark Williams
Michael J. Davies, Bradley Clark, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Christopher J. Gore and Kevin G. Thompson
, environmental, or performance feedback via noninvasive and practical methods. 4 The purpose of such deception is to create uncertainty within the pacing template, causing athletes to deviate from their routine strategy. 3 However, results from a recent meta-analysis suggest that changes in pacing and
Greg Wood, Samuel J. Vine, Johnny Parr and Mark R. Wilson
/or performance costs behind deception in soccer penalty shooting. This represents an intriguing shift in research focus from the perceiver to the deceiver and may offer an insight into the compensatory processes that underpin head fakes in aiming-based tasks. In Experiment 1, we extend the work of Wood and
Philip Hurst, Lieke Schipof-Godart, Florentina Hettinga, Bart Roelands and Chris Beedie
are set according to an athlete’s expectation of the task they are required to perform, based on previous experiences that were used to form a performance template. 14 Numerous studies have manipulated pacing strategies through deception about timing, the presence of a competitor, and inaccurate
Jamie Highton, Thomas Mullen and Craig Twist
To examine the influence of knowledge of exercise duration on pacing and performance during simulated rugby league match play.
Thirteen male university rugby players completed 3 simulated rugby league matches (RLMSP-i) on separate days in a random order. In a control trial, participants were informed that they would be performing 2 × 23-min bouts (separated by 20 min) of the RLMSP-i (CON). In a second trial, participants were informed that they would be performing 1 × 23-min bout of the protocol but were then asked to perform another 23-min bout (DEC). In a third trial, participants were not informed of the exercise duration and performed 2 × 23-min bouts (UN).
Distance covered and high-intensity running were higher in CON (4813 ± 167 m, 26 ± 4.1 m/min) than DEC (4764 ± 112 m, 25.2 ± 2.8 m/min) and UN (4744 ± 131 m, 24.4 m/min). Compared with CON, high-intensity running and peak speed were typically higher for DEC in bout 1 and lower in bout 2 of the RLMSP-i, while UN was generally lower throughout. Similarly, DEC resulted in an increased heart rate, blood lactate, and rating of perceived exertion than CON in bout 1, whereas these variables were lower throughout the protocol in UN.
Pacing and performance during simulated rugby league match play depend on an accurate understanding of the exercise endpoint. Applied practitioners should consider informing players of their likely exercise duration to maximize running.
Karen Howells and David Fletcher
Previous research suggests that adversarial growth is a real and constructive phenomenon that occurs in athletes who compete at the highest level of sport. In this study, however, we adopt a critical stance on the veridicality of growth by exploring Olympic swimmers’ experience of constructive and illusory growth. Semistructured interviews, complemented by timelining, were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Despite the inherently negative aspects of adversity, it was evident from the swimmers’ interpretations that they also perceived positive consequences of their experiences. Analysis revealed that some of these positive outcomes were indicative of illusory aspects of growth, and other positive outcomes were more indicative of constructive aspects of growth. It appears that earlier phases of the growth process were characterized by more illusory aspects of growth, whereas when the temporal proximity from the adversity increased, more constructive aspects of growth were apparent.
Tim J. Gabbett, Ben Walker and Shane Walker
To investigate the influence of prior knowledge of exercise duration on the pacing strategies employed during gamebased activities.
Twelve semiprofessional team-sport athletes (mean ± SD age 22.8 ± 2.1 y) participated in this study. Players performed 3 small-sided games in random order. In one condition (Control), players were informed that they would play the small-sided game for 12 min and then completed the 12-min game. In a 2nd condition (Deception), players were told that they would play the small-sided game for 6 minutes, but after completing the 6-min game, they were asked to complete another 6 min. In a 3rd condition (Unknown), players were not told how long they would be required to play the small-sided game, but the activity was terminated after 12 min. Movement was recorded using a GPS unit sampling at 10 Hz. Post hoc inspection of video footage was undertaken to count the number of possessions and the number and quality of disposals.
Higher initial intensities were observed in the Deception (130.6 ± 3.3 m/min) and Unknown (129.3 ± 2.4 m/min) conditions than the Control condition (123.3 ± 3.4 m/min). Greater amounts of high-speed running occurred during the initial phases of the Deception condition, and more low-speed activity occurred during the Unknown condition. A moderately greater number of total skill involvements occurred in the Unknown condition than the Control condition.
These findings suggest that during game-based activities, players alter their pacing strategy based on the anticipated endpoint of the exercise bout.
Peter G. Mewett and John Perry
Professional running, derived from 19th century pedestrianism, is a gambling sport mostly confined to working men. Runners compete for prize money and, particularly, in the hope that they will win races as “dark horses” which should ensure substantial winnings from the betting ring. This sport involves handicapping athletes to level ability differences between them and, in theory, gives each competitor an equal chance of winning. Competitors conceal their true potential and lose races, however, with the dual objectives of acquiring favorable handicaps, thereby increasing their chances of success in their targeted events and getting favorable odds from the bookmakers. People in the sport use numerous tactics of secrecy and deception to reduce the risk of discovery of their dark horse prospects. A case study of a runner is presented to demonstrate the processes involved in the use of the “dark horse” strategy to win a major race.
Four studies were conducted to assess the psychometric properties and the theoretical basis of a version of the Inventory of Desirable Responding in Relationships, which was originally developed and validated for the assessment of romantic relationships, in a different relational context (i.e., coach-athlete relationships). The first study aimed to address the content validity of the modified inventory, the Inventory of Desirable Responding in Coach-Athlete Relationship (IDR-CART) scale. The second study employed factor analytic techniques to examine its psychometric properties. Results confirmed the two-factor structure of the inventory: self-deception (CART-SD) and impression management (CART-IM). In the third study, data were collected under public and anonymous conditions. Results revealed, however, that neither condition supported the factor structure, thereby casting doubt on theoretical assumptions. The fourth study demonstrated that CART-SD is associated with indices of relationship quality, providing evidence of convergent validity. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.
Margaret Keiper, Dylan Williams and Gil Fried
Fraud is a very broad term, but the underlying theme is the intentional act of deception for personal financial gain. This case study highlights three examples of fraud at different levels of sport: youth, collegiate, and professional. Students are provided a broad perspective of financial fraud and are exposed to differing types of criminal activity at each level of sport. Furthermore, the authors provide an understanding of financial fraud, illegal activities related to fraud, and the responsibilities that all sport management professionals have within various positions at each respective level. Finally, this case provides students with an opportunity to suggest solutions and deterrents for dealing with financial fraud at each level. Specifically, the authors provide a rationale for the use of internal controls within an organization to segregate an organization’s financial responsibilities and reduce the risk of financial fraud.